A mountain of millipedes IX: Species of the family Gomphodesmidae from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

Sissel Anna Olsen, Trine Rosenmejer, Henrik Enghoff


A new genus and six new species of the family Gomphodesmidae from the Udzungwa Mts are described, including Pogoro alopias Rosenmejer & Enghoff sp. nov., Pogoro siren Rosenmejer & Enghoff sp. nov., Pogoropsis prolixopes Rosenmejer & Enghoff gen. et sp. nov., Emphysemastix frampt Olsen & Enghoff sp. nov., Agrophogonus hamulus Olsen & Enghoff sp. nov., and Agrophogonus pusillokiellandi Olsen & Enghoff sp. nov. Emphysemastix dracarys Olsen & Enghoff sp. nov. from Iringa city is described. Descriptive notes are given for Pogoro scharffi Hoffman, 2005, and Agrophogonus mwanihana Hoffmann, 2005. General gomphodesmid gonopod morphology is described and illustrated. A key to Udzungwa gomphodesmids is presented, as well as revised keys to all species of Emphysemastix and Agrophogonus. All gomphodesmid species from the Udzungwa Mts are mapped.


taxonomy; new species; key; Eastern Arc Mountains

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.675


Attems C. 1931. Die Familie Leptodesmidae und andere Polydesmiden. Zoologica, Stuttgart 30 (70): 1–150.

Carl J. 1909. Reise von Dr. J. Carl im nördlichen Zentral-Afrikanischen Seengebiet. Diplopoden. Revue suisse de Zoologie 17: 281–365. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40663#page/293/mode/1up [accessed 27 May 2020].

Cook O.F. 1896. East African Diplopoda of the suborder Polydesmoidea, collected by Mr. William Astor Chanler. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 18: 81–111. Available from https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/13397/USNMP-18_1042_1896.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [accessed 27 May 2020].

Decker P. 2016. Integrative taxonomic revision of the polymorphic flat-millipede genera Oncocladosoma and Somethus in South Australia (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae). Invertebrate Systematics 30: 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS15047

Enghoff H. 1987. Revision of Nepalmatoiuluus Mauriès, 1983 – a Southeast Asian genus of millipedes (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 93: 241–331.

Enghoff H. 2014. A mountain of millipedes I: An endemic species-group of the genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 100: 1–75. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.100

Enghoff H. 2018a. A mountain of millipedes VI. New records, new species, a new genus, and a general discussion of Odontopygidae from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 394: 1–29. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.394

Enghoff H. 2018b. A mountain of millipedes VII. The genus Eviulisoma Silvestri, 1910, in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, and related species from other Eastern Arc mountains. With notes on Eoseviulisoma Brolemann, 1920, and Suohelisoma Hoffman, 1963 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 445: 1–90. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.445

Enghoff H. 2020. A mountain of millipedes VIII. The genus Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013 revisited – a new species from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania, another from the Nguru Mts, and introduction of the first pair of male legs as a source of taxonomic characters (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 626: 1–32. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.626

Enghoff H., Hoffman R.L. & Howell K.M. 2016. Checklist of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History 105 (1): 51–113. https://doi.org/10.2982/028.105.0103

Enghoff H., Manno N., Tchibozo S., List M., Schwarzinger B., Schoefberger W., Schwarzinger C. & Paoletti M.G. 2014. Millipedes as food for humans, their nutritional and possible anti-malaria value – a first report. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014: article ID 651768. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/651768

Frontier Tanzania 2001. West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve – Zoological Report. In: Doody K.Z., Howell K.M. & Fanning E. (eds) Report for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project, MEMA, Iringa, Tanzania. Available from http://www.easternarc.or.tz/groups/webcontent/documents/pdf/WKSFR%20Zoological%20Report.PDF [accessed 27 May 2020].

Hoffman R.L. 1966. Notes on Aulodesmus and the proposal of a related new genus (Polydesmida: Gomphodesmidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 63: 193–208.

Hoffman R.L. 2005. Monograph of the Gomphodesmidae: A Family of African Polydesmoid Millipeds. Museum of Natural History, Vienna.

Koch M. 2015. Diplopoda – general morphology. In: Minelli A. (ed.) Treatise on Zoology – Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology. The Myriapoda 2: 7–67. Brill, Leiden and Boston.

Lewis J.G.E. 1971. The life history and ecology of the millipede Tymbodesmus falcatus (Polydesmida: Gomphodesmidae) in northern Nigeria with notes on Sphenodesmus sheribongensis. Journal of Zoology 164: 551–563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1971.tb01335.x

Lewis J.G.E. 1974. The ecology of centipedes and millipedes in northern Nigeria. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 32: 423–431.

Marshall A.R., Jørgensbye H.I.O., Rovero F., Platts P.L., White P.C.L. & Lovett J.C. 2010. The species–area relationship and confounding variables in a threatened monkey community. American Journal of Primatology 72: 325–336. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20787

Menegon M. & Salvidio S. 2005. Amphibian and reptile diversity in the southern Udzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve, south-eastern Tanzania. In: Huber B.A., Sinclair B.J. & Lampe K.-H. (eds) African Biodiversity: Molecules, Organisms, Ecosystems. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium of Tropical Biology, Museum Koenig, Bonn: 205–212. Springer Verlag, Boston. https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-24320-8_18

Mesibov R. 2006. The millipede genus Lissodesmus Chamberlin, 1920 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Dalodesmidae) from Tasmania and Victoria, with descriptions of a new genus and 24 new species. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 62: 103–146. https://doi.org/10.24199/j.mmv.2005.62.4

Nzoko Fiemapong A.R., Tamesse J.L. & VandenSpiegel D. 2017. A survey of the western African millipede genus Tymbodesmus Cook, 1899 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Gomphodesmidae), with the description of a new species from Cameroon. Arthropoda Selecta 26 (1): 1–7.

Peters W.C.H. 1855. Über die Myriapoden im allgemeinen und insbesondere über die in Mossambique beobachteten Arten dieser Familie. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Peußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 75: 75–79. Available from https://d-nb.info/113917486X/34 [accessed 27 May 2020].

Petit G. 1976. Dévéloppements comparés des appendices copulateurs (gonopodes) chez Polydesmus angustus Latzel et Brachydesmus superus Latzel (Diplopodes: Polydesmidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology 5: 261–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7322(76)90026-X

Pimvichai P., Enghoff H. & Panha S. 2011. A revision of the Thyropygus allevatus group. Part 3: the T. induratus subgroup (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida: Harpagophoridae). Zootaxa 2941: 47–68. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2941.1.3

Scharff N., Rovero F., Jensen F.P. & Brøgger-Jensen S. (eds). 2015. Udzungwa. Tales of Discovery in an East African Rainforest. Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen and MUSE – Science Museum, Trento, Italy.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/