European Journal of Taxonomy <p>The <em>European Journal of Taxonomy</em> is a peer-reviewed international journal in descriptive taxonomy, covering the eukaryotic world. Its content is fully electronic and <a href="">Open Access</a>. It is published and funded by a <a href="">consortium</a> of European natural history institutions. Neither authors nor readers have to pay fees. All articles published in <em>EJT</em> are compliant with the different nomenclatural codes. <em>EJT</em> is an archived and indexed journal that welcomes scientific contributions from all over the world, both in content and authorship. If you have any questions about <em>EJT</em>, please <a href="">contact us</a></p> EJT Consortium en-US European Journal of Taxonomy 2118-9773 <h3>Creative Commons Copyright Notices</h3> <div class="page"> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are NOT ALLOWED TO post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to taxonomic issues.</li> </ol> </div> Five new species of the genus Phlugiolopsis Zeuner, 1940 (Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) from China <p>This paper reports five new species of <em>Phlugiolopsis</em> Zeuner, 1940 from Sichuan, Yunnan and Guangxi in China, i.e., <em>Phlugiolopsis luojishanensis</em> sp.&nbsp;nov., <em>Phlugiolopsis lata</em> sp.&nbsp;nov., <em>Phlugiolopsis rongshuiensis</em> sp.&nbsp;nov., <em>Phlugiolopsis acuta</em> sp.&nbsp;nov. and <em>Phlugiolopsis daweishanensis</em> sp.&nbsp;nov. We present a redescription of the male of <em>Phlugiolopsis&nbsp;punctata </em>Wang, Li &amp; Liu, 2012, describe the female of <em>Phlugiolopsis&nbsp;punctata </em>Wang, Li &amp; Liu, 2012 and the male of <em>Phlugiolopsis pentagonis</em> Bian, Shi &amp; Chang, 2013 for the first time. In addition, images illustrating the morphology of these species and seven previously described species are provided. The distribution map of the genus <em>Phlugiolopsis</em> from China is also provided.</p> Mengjia Zheng Jie Su Fuming Shi Copyright (c) 2024 Mengjia Zheng, Jie Su, Fuming Shi 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 935 29–53 29–53 10.5852/ejt.2024.935.2541 Calycosiphonia or Kupeantha (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae)? A morphological and molecular study of a new species from the Albertine Rift <p>Field work in the Kibira National Park (Burundi), located in the Kivu-Ruwenzori system of the Afromontane Region, revealed the existence of a new species clearly belonging to the <em>Argocoffeopsis</em>-<em>Calycosiphonia</em> clade (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae). The species shows striking heterophylly: the plagiotropous branches have several nodes bearing reduced or even scaly leaves. For the rest, it shares characters with <em>Calycosiphonia</em> and <em>Kupeantha</em>. Therefore, a morphological comparison with the clade is done, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses. The morphology of the novelty is closer to <em>Kupeantha</em> than to <em>Calycosiphonia</em>, inter alia because the anthers have no transverse septa, in contrast to the multilocellate anthers of <em>Calycosiphonia</em>. However, the molecular data advocate for a position in <em>Calycosiphonia</em> – a result weakening the morphological distinction between <em>Calycosiphonia</em> and <em>Kupeantha</em>. The former genus is no longer restricted to species with transverse septa in the anthers and with placental outgrowths around the seed. The new species is formally described as <em>Calycosiphonia albertina</em> Ntore &amp; Robbr. sp. nov. Nomenclaturally, this placement is also the most conservative option. A taxonomic treatment, illustrations, a geographical distribution map, and a preliminary conservation assessment are provided. The previous inclusion of <em>Calycosiphonia pentamera</em> in <em>Kupeantha</em> based on morphology is here corroborated by molecular analyses.</p> Salvator Ntore Jacques Nkengurutse Sander de Backer Bonaventure Sonké Petra De Block Steven B. Janssens Brecht Verstraete Elmar Robbrecht Copyright (c) 2024 Salvator Ntore, Jacques Nkengurutse, Sander de Backer, Bonaventure Sonké, Petra De Block, Steven B. Janssens, Brecht Verstraete, Elmar Robbrecht 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 935 1–28 1–28 10.5852/ejt.2024.935.2539 A practical, step-by-step, guide to taxonomic comparisons using Procrustes geometric morphometrics and user-friendly software (part B): group comparisons <p>In this second part of the study, using a ‘clean’ dataset without very low precision landmarks and outliers, I describe how to compare mandibular size and shape using Procrustes methods in adult North American marmots. After demonstrating that sex differences are negligible, females and males are pooled together with specimens of unknown sex and species are compared using a battery of tests, that estimate both statistical significance and effect size. The importance of allometric variation and its potential effect on shape differences is also explored. Finally, to provide potential clues on founder effects, I compare the magnitude of variance in mandibular size and shape between the Vancouver Island marmot (VAN) and the hoary marmot, its sister species on the mainland. In almost all main analyses, I explore the sensitivity of results to heterogeneous sample size and small samples using subsamples and randomized selection experiments. For both size and shape, I find a degree of overlap among species variation but, with very few exceptions, mean interspecific differences are well supported in all analyses. Shape, in particular, is an accurate predictor of taxonomic affiliation. Allometry in adults, however, explains a modest amount of within-species shape change. Yet, there is a degree of divergence in allometric trajectories that seems consistent with subgeneric separation. VAN is the most distinctive species for mandibular shape and mandibular morphology suggests a long history of reduced variation in this insular population. Geometric morphometrics (GMM) is a powerful tool to aid taxonomic research. Regardless of the effectiveness of this family of methods and the apparent robustness of results obtained with GMM, however, large samples and careful measurements remain essential for accuracy. Even with excellent data, morphometrics is important, but its findings must be corroborated with an integrative approach that combines multiple lines of evidence to taxonomic assessment. The analytical protocol I suggest is described in detail, with a summary checklist, in the Appendix, not to miss important steps. All the analyses can be replicated using the entire dataset, which is freely available online. Beginners may follow all the steps, whereas more experienced researchers can focus on one specific aspect and read only the relevant chapter. There are limitations, but the protocol is flexible and easy to improve or implement using a programming language such as R.</p> Andrea Cardini Copyright (c) 2024 Andrea Cardini 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 935 93 186 10.5852/ejt.2024.934.2529 A practical, step-by-step, guide to taxonomic comparisons using Procrustes geometric morphometrics and user-friendly software (part A): introduction and preliminary analyses <div> <p class="AbstractKeywordsStylesEJTFirstpage" align="left"><span lang="FR">Taxonomy lays the foundations for the study of biodiversity and its conservation. Procrustean geometric morphometrics (GMM) is a most common technique for the taxonomic assessment of phenotypic population differences. To measure biological variation and detect evolutionarily significant units, GMM is often used on its own, although it is much more powerful with an integrative approach, in combination with molecular, ecological and behavioural data, as well as with meristic morphological traits. GMM is particularly effective in taxonomic research, when applied to 2D images, which are fast and low cost to obtain. Yet, taxonomists who may want to explore the usefulness of GMM are rarely experts in multivariate statistical analyses of size and shape differences. In these twin papers, I aim to provide a detailed step-by-step guideline to taxonomic analysis employing Procrustean GMM in user-friendly software (with tips for R users). In the first part (A) of the study, I will focus on preliminary analyses (mainly, measurement error, outliers and statistical power), which are fundamental for accuracy, but often neglected. I will also use this first paper, and its appendix (Appendix A), to informally introduce, and discuss, general topics in GMM and statistics, that are relevant to taxonomic applications. In the second part (B) of the work, I will move on to the main taxonomic analyses. Thus, I will show how to compare size and shape among groups, but I will also explore allometry and briefly examine differences in variance, as a potential clue to population bottlenecks in peripheral isolates. A large sample of North American marmot mandibles provides the example data (available online, for readers to replicate the study and practice with analyses). However, as this sample is larger than in previous studies and mostly unpublished, it also offers a chance to further explore the patterns of interspecific morphological variation in a group, that has been prominent in mammalian sociobiology, and whose evolutionary divergence is complex and only partially understood.</span></p> </div> Andrea Cardini Copyright (c) 2024 Andrea Cardini 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 935 1 92 10.5852/ejt.2024.934.2527 Taxonomic analysis of the genital plates and associated structures in Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) <p>Recently, new insights have been gained from the ophiuroid skeleton that were instrumental in the inference of a new phylogeny. The so far least studied ossicles are the adradial and abradial genital plates and the radial shields, which articulate with each other and support the genital slit and disc. In addition, the inner sides of the oral shields and madreporites have never been examined in detail. The present study utilized SEM, micro-CT and digital photography to document and examine these structures in 57 species from 28 of the currently accepted 34 families of Ophiuroidea. Early ontogeny and fossils were also considered. Previously, mainly the articular structures had been analysed, but the overall shape of the genital plates was here found to hold important phylogenetic signals. A long-neglected ossicle was re-discovered and studied in detail for the first time, here named the oral genital plate. It was recognized in all Ophintegrida, but was found to be absent in all Euryophiurida. The oral genital plate articulates with the oral shield and supports the proximal part of the genital slit wall. Abradial and oral genital plates were found to be absent in species that lack genital slits, but the adradial genital plate was always present. Numerous new morphological characters with potential phylogenetic signals were identified, described and figured in detail. A pre-existing character matrix was extended and revised with these new data, as well as with recently revised data on oral papillae, and a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was performed. This phylogeny largely agrees with the current molecular hypothesis, but some branches were not supported.</p> Sabine Stöhr Copyright (c) 2024 Sabine Stöhr 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 935 1 98 10.5852/ejt.2024.933.2525 Belostomatidae Leach, 1815 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) of northeastern Brazil <p>Belostomatidae Leach, 1815 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha), also known as giant water bugs, is a family with 11 genera and about 160 described species, most of which are recorded from the Neotropical region. Knowledge about these bugs in northeastern Brazil is relatively poor, with 16 previously recorded species. Here, we present new records for five additional species based on material from the states of Ceará, Maranhão, and Piauí deposited in the Coleção Zoológica do Maranhão, Caxias, Brazil. This increases to 21 the number of species recorded from the region. In addition, we provide photographs, distribution maps, and a key to the fauna of Belostomatidae from northeastern Brazil.</p> Cleilton Lima Franco Fabiano Stefanello Carlos Augusto Silva de Azevêdo Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira Copyright (c) 2024 Cleilton Lima Franco, Fabiano Stefanello, Carlos Augusto Silva de Azevêdo, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira 2024-05-13 2024-05-13 935 271 304 10.5852/ejt.2024.932.2537 On a collection of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, India <p>Two new species, <em>Habrocestum sahyadri </em>sp.&nbsp;nov<em>.</em>, and <em>Irura shendurney</em> sp.&nbsp;nov. are described from the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. The unknown female of <em>Habrocestum kerala</em> Asima, Caleb, Babu #38; Prasad, 2022 is described and three other species: <em>Gelotia lanka</em> Wijesinghe, 1991, <em>Phintella accentifera </em>(Simon, 1901) and<em> Vailimia jharbari</em> Basumatary, Caleb #38; Das, 2020 are recorded from the locality. Detailed descriptions, diagnosis and illustrations of the species are provided.</p> Ashraf Asima John T.D. Caleb Gopal Prasad Copyright (c) 2024 Ashraf Asima, John T.D. Caleb, Gopal Prasad 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 935 252–270 252–270 10.5852/ejt.2024.932.2531 Notes on South-East Asian Diospyros L. (Ebenaceae, Ericales): commonly misidentified species in mainland South-East Asia <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>Diospyros</em> L. </span>is a large genus of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the tropics. It comprises over 700 species globally and around 300 are believed to occur in South-East Asia. Many species are economically important and exploited for the production of ebony wood and persimmons, yet taxonomic information on the genus is incomplete and inconsistent due to its morphological and nomenclatural complexity. Revisions of <span class="s1"><em>Diospyros </em></span>in continental and insular South-East Asia were conducted independently by different authors, occasionally with different names used for the same species, or different species being given the same name in different countries. During our ongoing study of the genus <span class="s1"><em>Diospyros</em></span> in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam), we identified several such instances. Here, we clarify the most commonly misidentified species, including 1) <span class="s1"><em>D. apiculata</em> Hiern</span>, <span class="s1"><em>D. strigosa</em></span> Hemsl. and <span class="s1"><em>D. tamiriensis</em> Lecomte</span>; 2) <span class="s1"><em>D. bejaudii</em></span> <span class="s1">Lecomte </span>and <span class="s1"><em>D. retrofracta </em>Bakh.</span>; 3) <span class="s1"><em>D. dictyoneura</em> Hiern and <em>D. hasseltii</em> Zoll.</span>; 4) <span class="s1"><em>D. borneensis</em> Hiern </span>and <span class="s1"><em>D. fecunda</em> H.R.Fletcher</span>. Lectotypifications are also made for <span class="s1"><em>D. brachiata </em></span>King &amp; Gamble var. <span class="s1"><em>lanceolata </em></span>H.R.Fletcher, <span class="s1"><em>D. fecunda</em></span>, <span class="s1"><em>D. similis </em></span>Craib and <span class="s1"><em>D. strigosa</em></span>.</p> Nattanon Meeprom Sutee Duangjai Timothy M.A. Utteridge Alastair Culham Carmen Puglisi Copyright (c) 2024 Nattanon Meeprom, Sutee Duangjai, Timothy M.A. Utteridge, Alastair Culham, Carmen Puglisi 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 935 225 251 10.5852/ejt.2024.932.2533 Update in the Peruvian Caponiidae: New records and new species of Nyetnops Platnick & Lise, 2007 (Araneae: Caponiidae) <p>An update on the diversity and distribution of Caponiidae from Peru is presented. New distributional records for <em>Caponina cajabamba </em>Platnick, 1994 are given and the male is described for the first time. Additionally, three new species of the genus <em>Nyetnops</em> Platnick &amp; Lise, 2007 are described: <em>Nyetnops alexanderi</em> Villarreal &amp; Martínez sp. nov. (♂♀), <em>Nyetnops madre</em> Villarreal &amp; Martínez sp. nov. (♂♀) and <em>Nyetnops josei</em> Villarreal &amp; Martínez sp. nov. (♂). The taxonomic key proposed by Sánchez-Ruiz <em>et&nbsp;al.</em> (2020) for <em>Nyetnops </em>is updated to include all the described species as well as the new ones proposed herein. Maps showing the distribution of the records of Caponiidae species in Peru, mainly focused on the genus <em>Nyetnops </em>is included.</p> Eduardo Villarreal-Blanco Leonel Martínez Melisa Eyes-Escalante Copyright (c) 2024 Eduardo Villarreal-Blanco, Leonel Martínez, Melisa Eyes-Escalante 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 935 204–224 204–224 10.5852/ejt.2024.932.2523 Taxonomic reassessment of the Herpetoreas xenura (Wall, 1907) (Squamata: Serpentes: Natricidae) from Myanmar with description of a new species <p>The review of the taxonomic status of <em>Herpetoreas xenura</em> species complex, based on morphological and molecular data, revealed a new species from Myanmar, which we describe as <em>Herpetoreas davidi</em> sp. nov. from the Rakhine Yoma Elephant Wildlife Sanctuary in Rakhine State. It is suggested to be a sister species to <em>Herpetoreas pealii </em>and<em> Herpetoreas xenura </em>sensu stricto, and can be separated from the latter species by a combination of morphological and scalation characters, and by its pattern. Another population from the Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary, Sagaing Region, was previously confused with <em>H. xenura.</em> However, as a closer examination of its morphology, shows it to be closer to <em>Hebius khasiensis</em>, we herein tentatively refer to this population as <em>Hebius khasiensis</em>, pending further molecular data confirming its taxonomic status. Consequently, we propose to temporarily remove <em>Herpetoreas xenura</em> from the fauna of Myanmar. Further studies, especially in the northwestern region of Myanmar, such as near border with India in Chin Hills and Naga Hills, are required. An updated key for the species of <em>Herpetoreas </em>is also provided.</p> Tan Van Nguyen Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga Lal Biakzuala Gernot Vogel Copyright (c) 2024 Tan Van Nguyen, Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga, Lal Biakzuala, Gernot Vogel 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 935 158–203 158–203 10.5852/ejt.2024.932.2519