New species and records of Evanioidea and Stephanoidea from New Caledonia (Hymenoptera)

Keywords: taxonomy, identification key, Aulacidae, Evaniidae, Gasteruptiidae, Stephanidae


Three new species of aulacid wasps, Aulacus pascali sp. nov., Pristaulacus elveni sp. nov. and Pristaulacus villemantae sp. nov., and a new species of gasteruptiid wasp, Gasteruption jenningsi sp. nov., are described and figured. Additionally, we update identification keys to New Caledonia species of aulacids and gasteruptiids. We also provide new data on New Caledonian Evaniidae, Gasteruptiidae and Stephanidae.


Aguiar A.P. 2004. World catalog of the Stephanidae (Hymenoptera: Stephanoidea). Zootaxa 753 (1): 1–120.

Aguiar A.P. & Jennings J.T. 2005. First record of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera) from New Caledonia, with descriptions of four new species of Parastephanellus Enderlein. Zootaxa 1101 (1): 1–16.

Alencar I.D.C.C. & Azevedo C.O. 2020. Revision of the world Apenesia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 4724 (1): 1–72.

Balhoff J.P., Mikó I., Yoder M.J., Mullins P.L. & Deans A.R. 2013. A semantic model for species description applied to the ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia. Systematic Biology 62 (5): 639–659.

Breitkreuz L.C.V., Ohl M. & Engel M.S. 2016. A review of the New Caledonian Arpactophilus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Zootaxa 4063 (1): 1–66.

Caesar M., Grandcolas P. & Pellens R. 2017. Outstanding micro-endemism in New Caledonia: more than one out of ten animal species have a very restricted distribution range. PLoS ONE 12 (7): e0181437.

Carlson R.W. 1979. Superfamily Evanioidea. In: Krombein K.V., Hurd P.D., Smith D.R. & Burks B.D. (eds) Catalog of the Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. 1. Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica): 1109–1118. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Chazeau J. 1993. Research on New Caledonian terrestrial fauna: achievements and prospects. Biodiversity Letters 1: 123–129.

Contarini M., Olmi M., Capradossi L. & Guglielmino A. 2020. Discovery of a new species of Embolemus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Embolemidae) from New Caledonia. Zootaxa 4728 (4): 477–482.

Crosskey R.W. 1962. The classification of the Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 114: 377–402.

Deans A.R. 2005. Annotated catalog of the world’s ensign wasp species (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 34: 1–164.

Deyrup M.A. 1984. A maple wood wasp, Xiphydria maculata, and its insect enemies (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae). Great Lake Entomologist 17: 17–28.

Gauld I.D. & Hanson B. 1995. The evaniomorph parasitoid families. In: Hanson P.E. & Gauld I.D. (eds) The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica: 185–208. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goulet H. & Huber J.T. 1993. Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa.

Harris R.A. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occasional Papers in Entomology 28: 1–31.

Hong C.-F., van Achterberg C. & Xu Z.-F. 2011. A revision of the Chinese Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea). ZooKeys 110: 1–108.

Huben M. 1995. Evaniidae. In: Hanson P.E. & Gauld I.D. (eds) The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica: 195–199. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 1994a. Revision of the genus Crassifoenus Crosskey (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae: Hyptiogastrinae), with a description of a new species from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 16: 575–591.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 1994b. Revision of Pseudofoenus Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae), a hyptiogastrine wasp genus endemic to New Zealand. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8 (6): 1289–1303.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 1997. Revision of the Australian endemic genus Hyptiogaster Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae), with descriptions of seven new species. Journal of Natural History 31: 1533–1562.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 2000. Higher-level phylogeny of the Aulacidae and Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea). In: Austin A.D. & Dowton M. (eds) Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control: 154–164. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 2002. Systematics and distribution of world hyptiogastrine wasps

(Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae). Invertebrate Systematics 16 (5): 735–811.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 2004. Biology and host relationships of aulacid and gasteruptiid wasps (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea): a review. In: Rajmohana K., Sudheer K., Girish Kumar P. & Santhosh S. (eds) Perspectives on Biosystematics and Biodiversity: 187–215. University of Calicut, Kerala.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 2005. Pseudofoenus caledonicus, a new species of hyptiogastrine wasp (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) from New Caledonia. Australian Journal of Entomology 44: 415–419.

Jennings J.T. & Austin A.D. 2006. Aulacid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae) of New Guinea, with descriptions of five new species. Zootaxa 1365 (1): 19–35.

Jennings J.T., Austin A.D. & Stevens N.B. 2004. First record of Aulacidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea) from New Caledonia with descriptions of three new species of Aulacus Jurine. Australian Journal of Entomology 43: 346–352.

Jennings J.T., Krogmann L. & Burwell C. 2013. Review of the hymenopteran fauna of New Caledonia with a checklist of species. Zootaxa 3736 (1): 1–53.

Jennings J.T., Jourdan H., Krogmann L. & Parslow B.A. 2015. The gasteruptiid wasp fauna of New Caledonia, with description of three new species of Gasteruption (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae). Zootaxa 3947 (3): 397–406.

Jennings J.T., Parslow B.A. & Austin A.D. 2018. Systematics of the parasitoid wasp genus Aulacus Jurine (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Aulacidae) from Australia. Zootaxa 4538 (1): 1–113.

Kimsey L.S. 2014. Description of a new chrysidid genus from New Caledonia (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Amiseginae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 38: 19–35.

Li L., Rasnitsyn A.P., Shih C., Labandeira C.C., Buffington M., Li D. & Ren D. 2018. Phylogeny of Evanioidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita), with descriptions of new Mesozoic species from China and Myanmar. Systematic Entomology 43: 810–842.

Macedo A.C.C. 2009. Generic classification for the Gasteruptiinae (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) based on a cladistic analysis, with the description of two new Neotropical genera and the revalidation of Plutofoenus Kieffer. Zootaxa 2075 (1): 1–32.

Macedo A.C.C. 2011. A revision of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) in the Neotropical region. Zootaxa 3030 (1): 1–62.

Malyshev S.I. 1968. Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the Phases of their Evolution. Springer, Boston.

Morat P. 1993. Our knowledge of the flora of New Caledonia.endemism and diversity in relation to vegetation types and substrates. Biodiversity Letters 1: 72–81.

Mullins P.L., Kawada R., Balhoff J.P. & Deans A.R. 2012. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation. ZooKeys 223: 1–38.

Myers N., Mittermeier R.A., Mittermeier C.G., da Fonseca G.A.B. & Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.

Najt J. & Grandcolas P. (eds) 2002. Zoologica Neocaledonica, 5. Systématique et endémisme en Nouvelle Calédonie. Mémoires du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle 187: 1–282.

Ortiz-Sepulveda C.M, Van Bocxlaer B., Meneses A.D. & Fernández F. 2019. Molecular and morphological recognition of species boundaries in the neglected ant genus Brachymyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): toward a taxonomic revision. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 19 (3): 447–542.

Parslow B.A. & Jennings J.T. 2018. A new species of the endemic Australian genus Hyptiogaster Kieffer Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae). Zootaxa 4379(1): 145–150.

Parslow B.A., Stevens M.I. & Schwarz M.P. 2018. First record of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae) from Fiji with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 4407 (1): 111–116.

Parslow B.A., Schwarz M.P. & Stevens M.I. 2020. Review of the biology and host associations of the wasp genus Gasteruption (Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 189 (4): 1105–1122.

Pauly A., Walker K., Munzinger J. & Donovan B. 2013a. Endémisme insulaire et cleptoparasitisme chez les Lasioglossum Curtis 1833 (Hymenoptera : Apoidea : Halictidae) de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.) 49 (2): 127–153.

Pauly A., Donovan B. & Munzinger J. 2013b. Les Austronomia Michener, 1965 de Nouvelle-Calédonie et de l’archipel du Vanuatu (Hymenoptera : Apoidea : Halictidae : Nomiinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 11: 1–29.

Pauly A., Donovan B. & Munzinger J. 2015. Les abeilles du genre Homalictus Cockerell, 1919 en Nouvelle-Calédonie (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Belgian Journal of Entomology 34: 1–30.

Ramage T., Charlat S. & Jacq F. 2015. The Aculeata of French Polynesia. III. Sphecidae, with the record of three new species for the Society Islands (Hymenoptera). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 120 (2): 157–163.

Ramage T., Jouault C., Schmidt A.R., Seyfullah L.J. & Perrichot V. 2019. Two new ant species (Formicidae: Dorylinae, Ponerinae) from New Caledonia. European Journal of Taxonomy 589: 1–14.

Smith D.R. 2001. World catalog of the family Aulacidae (Hymenoptera). Contributions on Entomology, International 4 (3): 261–319.

Smith D.R. & Turrisi G.F. 2020. New species of Pristaulacus Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae) from Southern India. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 122 (2): 462–470.

Smith D.R. & Villemant C. 2017. Additions to the xiphydriid woodwasp (Hymenoptera, Xiphydriidae) fauna of New Caledonia. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 61: 65–74.

Speranza S., Olmi M., Guglielmino A., Capradossi L. & Contarini M. 2019. Discovery of the transantarctic distribution of the genus Metanteon Olmi (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), with description of a new species from New Caledonia. Zootaxa 4695 (2): 189–194.

Taylor R.W. 2018. New species of the ant genus Metapone Forel, 1911: first records from New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 26: 97–100.

Turner R.E. 1919. XXI.– On the Hymenoptera collected in New Caledonia by P. D. Montague in 1914. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 9th Series 3 (15): 229–240.

Turrisi G.F. 2006. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900 (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 37: 27–38.

Turrisi G.F. 2007. Revision of the Palaearctic species of Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900 (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae). Zootaxa 1433 (1): 1–76.

Turrisi G.F. 2014. A new species of Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900 from Laos (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae). Natura Somogyiensis 24: 165–172.

Turrisi G.F. 2017. The parasitoid wasp family Aulacidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea), with a revised World checklist. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119: 931–939.

Turrisi G.F. & Madl M. 2013. Addition to the revision of the Pristaulacus comptipennis species-group: description of two new species from Laos and Thailand (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 16 (3): 237–243.

Turrisi G.F. & Smith D.R. 2020. Three new species of Aulacidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea) with additional records from Thailand and Laos. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 122 (1): 197–210.

Turrisi G.F., Jennings J.T. & Vilhelmsen L. 2009. Phylogeny and generic concepts of the parasitoid wasp family Aulacidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea). Invertebrate Systematics 23: 27–59.

van Achterberg C. 2002. A revision of the Old World species of Megischus Brulle, Stephanus Jurine and Pseudomegischus gen. nov., with a key to the genera of the family Stephanidae (Hymenoptera: Stephanoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 339: 1–206.

van Achterberg C. & Talebi A. 2014. Review of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) from Iran and Turkey, with the description of 15 new species. ZooKeys 458: 1–187.

Vilhelmsen L. 1997. The phylogeny of lower Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a summary of the early evolutionary history of the order. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 35: 49–70.

Zhao K.-X., van Achterberg C. & Xu Z.F. 2012. A revision of the Chinese Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea). ZooKeys 237: 1–123.

How to Cite
Ramage, T., & Jouault, C. (2020). New species and records of Evanioidea and Stephanoidea from New Caledonia (Hymenoptera). European Journal of Taxonomy, 723(1), 1-32.
Research article