New and known Halichoanolaimus de Man, 1886 species (Nematoda: Selachinematidae) from New Zealand’s continental margin

  • Daniel Leduc National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, 14-901
Keywords: Blind intestine, pseudocoelomocytes, pore complexes, continental slope, Kaikōura Canyon


The Selachinematidae is a globally distributed family of predatory nematodes found from shallow waters to the abyssal plain. Here, three new species of Halichoanolaimus de Man, 1886 (H. ossilagulus sp. nov., H. funestus sp. nov. and H. pumilus sp. nov.) and one known species (H. ovalis Ditlevsen, 1921) are described from the New Zealand continental margin, thus bringing the total number of selachinematid species recorded from the New Zealand region to 14 and the total number of species of Halichoanolaimus to 26. The range of H. ovalis is extended from the Southern Ocean to the Southwest Pacific Ocean (latitude 42° S to 53° S); the depth range of this species, which was originally described from the littoral zone, is also extended to 1061 m depth. Dorsosublateral rows of pore complexes and pseudocoelomocytes, features that have either rarely or not been recorded previously in the genus, were observed in all four species described here. The taxonomic significance of these features remains to be ascertained for the family and will require observations of other species of Halichoanolaimus and selachinematid genera. Pseudocoelomocytes and pore complexes may have an excretory function, thus aiding to process the waste products of digestion in selachinematid taxa with a blind intestine.


Ahmed M., Boström S. & Holovachov O. 2020. Revision of the genus Cobbionema Filipjev, 1922 (Nematoda, Chromadorida, Selachinematidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 702: 1–34.

Allgén C. 1927. Freilebende marine nematoden von den Campbell- und Staten-Inseln. Nyt Magasin for Naturvidenskaberne 66: 249–309.

Allgén C. 1929. Neue freilebende marine Nematoden von der Westküste Schwedens. Zoologische Jahrbucher (Systematik) 57: 431–496.

Allgén C. 1933. Räuberische Ernährungsweise mariner Nematoden, insbesondere der Halichoanolaimi. Folia Zoologica et Hydrobiologica 9: 321–324.

Allgén C. 1933. Freilebende Nematoden aus dem Trondhjemsfjord. Capita Zoologica 4: 1–162.

Bradford-Grieve J.M., Chang F.H., Gall M., Pickmere S. & Richards F. 1997. Size-fractioned phytoplankton standing stocks and primary production during austral winter and spring 1993 in the Subtropical Convergence region near New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31: 201–224.

Coomans A. 1979. Addendum I. A proposal for a more precise terminology of the body regions in the nematode. Annales de la Societé royale zoologique de Belgique 108: 115–117.

Daschenko O.I. & Belogurov O.I. 1991. The morphology of free-living marine nematode Halichoanolaimus bispirae sp. n. (Nematoda, Chromadorida, Choniolaimidae) from polychaetes colony. In: Fadeev V.I., Zvyagintsev A.Y., Kubanin A.A. & Bagaveeva E.V. (eds) Biological Studies of Benthos and Fouling in the Sea of Japan. DVO AN USSR, Vladivostok.

Decraemer W., Coomans A. & Baldwin J. 2014. Morphology of Nematoda. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A. (ed.) Handbook of Zoology, Volume 2: Nematoda. Hamburg, De Gruyter.

Ditlevsen H. 1921. Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensens Pacific Expedition 1914–16. III Marine free-living Nematodes from the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn 73: 1–39.

Holovachov O., Boström S., Mundo-Ocampo M., Tandingan De Ley I., Yoder M., Burr A.H.J. & De Ley P. 2009. Morphology, molecular characterisation and systematic position of Hemiplectus muscorum Zell, 1991 (Nematoda: Plectida). Nematology 11: 719–737.

Leduc D. 2013. Two new genera and five new species of Selachinematidae (Nematoda, Chromadorida) from the continental slope of New Zealand. European Journal of Taxonomy 63: 1–32.

Leduc D. & Gwyther J. 2008. Description of new species of Setosabatieria and Desmolaimus (Nema-toda: Monhysterida) and a checklist of New Zealand free-living marine nematode species. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 339–362.

Leduc D. & Zhao Z.Q. 2015. Latronema whataitai sp. n. (Nematoda: Selachinematidae) from intertidal sediments of New Zealand, with notes on relationships within the family based on preliminary 18S and D2-D3 phylogenetic analyses. Nematology 17: 941–952.

Leduc D. & Zhao Z.Q. 2016. Molecular characterisation of five nematode species (Chromadorida, Selachinematidae) from shelf and upper slope sediments off New Zealand, with description of three new species. Zootaxa 4132 (1): 59–76.

Leduc D. & Zhao Z.Q. 2018. Phylogenetic relationships within the Cyatholaimidae (Nematoda: Chromadorida), the taxonomic significance of cuticle pore and pore-like structures, and a description of two new species. Marine Biodiversity 48: 217–230.

Leduc D., Rowden A.A., Nodder S.D., Berkenbusch K., Probert P.K. & Hadfield M.G. 2014. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community. Deep-Sea Research II 104: 310–318.

Leo de F.C., Smith C.R., Rowden A.A., Bowden D.A. & Clark M.R. 2010. Submarine canyons: hotspots of benthic biomass and productivity in the deep sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277: 2783–2792.

Man de J.G. 1886. Anatomische Untersuchungen über freilebende Nordsee-Nematoden. Leipzig, Verlag von Paul Frohberg.

Miljutin D.M., Gad G., Miljutina M.M., Mokievsky V.O., Fonseca-Genevois V. & Esteves A.M. 2010. The state of knowledge on deep-sea nematode taxonomy: how many valid species are known down there? Marine Biodiversity 40: 143–159.

Murphy R.J., Pinkerton M.H., Richardson K.M. & Bradford-Grieve J.M. 2001. Phytoplankton distributions around New Zealand derived from SeaWiFS remote-sensed ocean colour data. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 343–362.

Okhlopkov J.R. 2002. Free-living nematodes of the families Selachinematidae and Richtersiidae in the White Sea (Nematoda, Chromadorida). Zoosystematica Rossica 11: 41–55.

Okhlopkov J.R. 2003. Nutrition of free-living nematodes of the families Selachinematidae and Richtersiidae in the White Sea. Proceedings of the Pertsov White Sea Biological Station 9: 127–139. [In Russian]

Schuurmans Stekhoven J.H. & Adam W. 1931. The freeliving marine nemas of the Belgian coast. Mémoires du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 49: 1–58.

Somerfield P.J. & Warwick R.M. 1996. Meiofauna in Marine Pollution Monitoring Programmes: a Laboratory Manual. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft, UK

Ssaweljev S. 1912. Zur Kenntnis der freilebenden Nematoden des Kolafjords und des Relictensee Mogilnoje. Travaux de la Société impériale des Naturalistes de Saint-Petersbourg 42: 108–126.

Tchesunov A.V. 2014. Order Chromadorida Chitwood, 1933. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa A. (ed.) Handbook of Zoology, Volume 2: Nematoda. Hamburg, De Gruyter.

Tchesunov A.V. & Okhlopkov J.R. 2006. On some selachinematid nematodes (Chromadorida: Selachinematidae) deposited in the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Nematology 8: 21–44.

Timm R.W. 1961. The marine nematodes of the Bay of Bengal. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 1: 25–88.

Warwick R.M. 1971. Nematode associations in the Exe estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 51: 439–454.

Zograf J., Trebukhova Y. & Pavlyuk O. 2015. New deep-sea free-living marine nematodes from the Sea of Japan: the genera Siphonolaimus and Halichoanolaimus (Nematoda: Chromadorea) with keys to species identification. Zootaxa 3911 (1): 63–80.

How to Cite
Leduc, D. (2020). New and known Halichoanolaimus de Man, 1886 species (Nematoda: Selachinematidae) from New Zealand’s continental margin. European Journal of Taxonomy, 726(1), 59-82.
Research article