Two new species in the Russula (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota) crown clade from Indian Himalaya

  • Aniket Ghosh Department of Botany Department of Botany & Microbiology & USIC Dept. HNB Garhwal University Microbiology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal – 246174, India
  • Kanad Das Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India, P.O. - Botanic Garden, Howrah – 711103, India
  • Bart Buyck Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles CP 39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France
Keywords: Decolorantes, Laricinae, nrITS, phylogeny, Russulales


Two species, namely Russula adwanitekae A.Ghosh, K.Das & Buyck sp. nov. and Russula purpureozonata K.Das, A.Ghosh & Buyck sp. nov. are proposed herein as new mushroom taxa from the Indian Himalaya based on their morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic inferences. Both species belong to the crown clade of Russula subgenus Russula but with affinities to different subsections, viz. subsect. Laricinae Romagn. and subsect. Decolorantes Maire, respectively. Russula adwanitekae sp. nov. was collected in mixed temperate forests where it is most likely associated with conifers. It is distinct from several similarly looking, small, mild species with dark spore print and reddish lilac, orchid purple or greyish to deep magenta colored pileus in subsect. Laricinae by its sequence data (nrITS) or geographic distribution. Russula purpureozonata sp. nov. associates with Abies densa Griff., and possesses all typical features of Decolorantes, viz. the amyloid suprahilar spot on the spores, presence of pileogloeocystidia, the reddening then blackening context, equal lamellae and colored spore print. It reminds of North American Rcaliforniensis Burl. and Rmagna Beardslee under the microscope but has distinctly smaller spores and differs further in the unique coloration and concentrically zonated pileus margin. Macro- and micromorphological features are illustrated for both species. Their habitats, distributions and relationships with allied species are discussed.


Adamčík S. & Buyck B. 2011. Type studies in American Russula (Russulales, Basidiomycota): species of subsection Decolorantinae described by HC Beardslee, GS Burlingham and WA Murrill. Cryptogamie Mycology 32 (3): 323–329.

Adamčík S., Jančovičová S. & Buyck B. 2015. Type-studies in Russula subsection Decolorantes (Russulales, Basidiomycota) in America, part II. Phytotaxa 231 (3): 245–259.

Adamčík S., Looney B., Caboň M., Jančovičová S., Adamčíková K., Avis P.G., Barajas M., Bhatt R.P., Corrales A., Das K., Hampe F., Ghosh A., Gates G., Kälviäinen V., Khalid A.K., Kiran M., De Lange R., Lee H., Lim Y.W., Luz A.K., Manz C., Ovrebo C., Park J.Y., Saba M., Taipale T., Verbeken A., Wisitrassameewong K. & Buyck B. 2019. The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language. Fungal Diversity 99 (1): 369–449.

Altschul S.F., Madden T.L., Schäffer A.A., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Miller W. & Lipman D.J. 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research 25 (17): 3389–3402.

Bazzicalupo A.L., Buyck B., Saar I., Vauras J., Carmean D. & Berbee M.L. 2017. Troubles with mycorrhizal mushroom identification where morphological differentiation lags behind barcode sequence divergence. Taxon 66 (4): 791–810.

Buyck B., Zoller S. & Hofstetter V. 2018. Walking the thin line… ten years later: the dilemma of above-versus below-ground features to support phylogenies in the Russulaceae (Basidiomycota). Fungal Diversity 89 (1): 267–292.

Clark K., Karsch-Mizrachi I., Lipman D.J., Ostell J. & Sayers E.W. 2016. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Research 44 (D1): D67–D72.

Drummond A.J., Ashton B., Buxton S., Cheung M., Cooper A., Heled J., Kearse M., Moir R., Stones-Havas S., Sturrock S., Thierer T. & Wilson A. 2010. Geneious v5.1.

Edler D., Klein J., Antonelli A. & Silvestro D. 2021. raxmlGUI 2.0: a graphical interface and toolkit for phylogenetic analyses using RAxML. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 12: 373–377.

Katoh K., Rozewicki R. & Yamada K.D. 2019. MAFFT online service: multiple sequence alignment, interactive sequence choice and visualization. Briefings in Bioinformatics 20 (4): 1160–1166.

Kõljalg U., Nilsson R.H., Abarenkov K., Tedersoo L., Taylor A.F.S., Bahram M., Bates S.T., Bruns T.D., Bengtsson-Palme J., Callaghan T.M., Douglas B., Drenkhan T., Eberhardt U., Duenas M., Grebenc T., Griffith G.W., Hartmann M., Kirk P.M., Kohout P., Larsson E., Lindahl B.D., Lucking R., Martin M.P., Matheny P.B., Nguyen N.H., Niskanen T., Oja J., Peay K.G., Peintner U., Peterson M., Poldmaa K., Saag L., Saar I., Schuβler A., Scott J.A., Sené C., Smith M.E., Suija A., Taylor D.L., Telleria M.T., Weiβ M. & Larsson K.H. 2013. Towards a unified paradigm for sequence-based identification of Fungi. Molecular Ecology 22: 5271–5277.

Kong A., Cifuentes J., Estrada-Torres A., Guzman-Davalas L., Garibay-Orijele R. & Buyck B. 2015. Russulaceae associated with mycoheterotroph Monotropa uniflora (Ericaceae) in Tlaxcala, Mexico: a phylogenetic approach. Cryptogamie Mycologie 36: 479–512.

Kornerup A. & Wanscher J.H. 1978. Methuen Handbook of Color, 3rd Edition. Methuen, London.

Li G.J., Zhao Q., Zhao D., Yue S.F., Li S.F., Wen H.A. & Liu X.Z. 2013. Russula atroaeruginea and R. sichuanensis spp. nov. from southwest China. Mycotaxon 124: 137–188.

Li G.J., Zhang C.L., Lin F.C. & Zhao R.L. 2018. Hypogeous gasteroid Lactarius sulphosmus sp. nov. and agaricoid Russula vinosobrunneola sp. nov. (Russulaceae) from China. Mycosphere 9 (4): 838–858.

Liu X.L., Bau T. & Wang X.H. 2017. Species diversity of Russula from the Greater and Lesser Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China. Mycosystema 36 (10): 1355–1368.

Saba M. & Khalid A.N. 2015. Russula sichuanensis and its ectomycorrhizae from Himalayan moist temperate forests of Pakistan. Mycotaxon 130: 629–639.

Sarnari M. 2005. Monografia illustrate del Genere Russula in Europa. Vol. 2. AMB, Centro Studi Micologici, Trento.

Talavera G. & Castresana J. 2007. Improvement of phylogenies after removing divergent and ambiguously aligned blocks from protein sequence alignments. Systematic Biology 56: 564–577.

Thiers B. Continuously updated. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from [accessed 3 Mar. 2021].

Vidal J.M., Alvarado P., Loizides M., Konstantinidis G., Chachuła P., Mleczko P., Moreno G., Vizzini A., Krakhmalnyi M., Paz A., Cabero J., Kaounas V., Slavova M., Moreno-Arroyo B. & Llistosella J. 2019. A phylogenetic and taxonomic revision of sequestrate Russulaceae in Mediterranean and temperate Europe. Persoonia 42: 127–185.

Wang X.H., Yang Z.L., Li Y.C., Knudsen H. & Liu P.G. 2009. Russula griseocarnosa sp. nov. (Russulaceae, Russulales), a commercially important edible mushroom in tropical China: mycorrhiza, phylogenetic position, and taxonomy. Nova Hedwigia 88 (1–2): 269–282.

White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S.S. & Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis M.A., Gelfand D.H., Sninsky J.J. & White T.J. (eds) PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications: 315–322. Academic Press, New York.

Whitbeck K.L. 2003. Systematics of Pacific Northwestern Species of the Genus Gymnomyces Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences. Master thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Yuan F., Song Y., Buyck B., Li J. & Qiu L. 2019. Russula viridicinnamomea F.Yuan & Y.Song, sp. nov. and R. pseudocatillus F.Yuan & Y.Song, sp. nov., two new species from southern China. Cryptogamie Mycologie 40 (4): 45–56.

How to Cite
Ghosh, A., Das, K., & Buyck, B. (2021). Two new species in the Russula (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota) crown clade from Indian Himalaya. European Journal of Taxonomy, 782(1), 157-172.
Research article