A review of the digger wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) of Hong Kong, with description of one new species and a key to known species

  • Christopher Taylor School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia
  • Christophe Barthélémy Sai Kung, Hong Kong
Keywords: Scolioidea, Scoliini, Campsomerini, taxonomy, morphometrics


We provide keys, descriptions and illustrations for 16 species of Scoliidae Latreille, 1802 found in Hong Kong, of which nine are new records for the territory, one is new to China and one is new to science: Scolia pakshaoensis sp. nov. The status of one species (Megacampsomeris sp. 1) remains uncertain; it may represent an additional new species.


Argaman Q. 1996. Generic synopsis of Scoliidae (Hymenoptera, Scolioidea). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 88: 171–222.

Ashmead W.H. 1903. Classification of the fossorial, predaceous and parasitic wasps, or the superfamily Vespoidea (paper no. 11). Canadian Entomologist 35: 3–8. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent353-1

Askew R.R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., London.

Baltazar CR. 1966. A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a Bibliography, 1758–1963). Pacific Insect Monograph 8: 1–488.

Betrem J.G. 1927a. Zur Erforschung des Persischen Golfes. Scoliidae (Hym.) Entomologische Mitteilungen 16: 288–296.

Betrem J.G. 1927b. Genus Scolia. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 70: xciii–xcviii.

Betrem J.G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden (Hym. Acul.) mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. Treubia 9 (supplement): 1–388.

Betrem J.G. 1933. Die Scoliiden der indoaustralischen und palearktischen Region aus dem Staatlichen Museum fur Tierkunde zu Dresden (Hym.). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 93: 236–263.

Betrem J.G. 1941. Etude systématique des Scoliidae de Chine et leurs relations avec les autres groupes de Scoliidae. Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (4): 47–188.

Betrem J.G. 1947. Analyse van enkele fauna-elementen van de Maleische Scoliiden. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 88: 409–416.

Betrem J.G. 1967. The natural groups of Campsomeriella Betr., 1941 (Hymenoptera Scoliidae). Entomologische Berichten 27: 25–29.

Betrem J.G. & Bradley J.C. 1964. Annotations on the genera Triscolia, Megascolia and Scolia [first part]. Zoologische Mededelingen 39: 433–444.

Bingham C.T. 1897. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma, Hymenoptera. Vol. 1: Wasps and Bees. Taylor & Francis, London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.100738

Bingham C.T. 1908. Notes on aculeate Hymenoptera in the Indian Museum. Part 1. Records of the Indian Museum 2 (4): 347–368.

Bradley J.C. 1964a. The type-specimens of the Scoliidae described by Amédee Lepeletier, Comte de Saint-Fargeau (with notes by J.G. Betrem) and by the Marchese Massimiliano Spinola. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 74: 186–196.

Bradley J.C. 1964b. The Fabrician types of Scoliidae (Hymenoptera), with notes and an appendix by J. G. Betrem. Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis 21: 1–38.

Bradley J.C. & Betrem J.G. 1967. The types of the Scoliidae described by Frederick Smith (Hymenoptera) with descriptions of new taxa, and notes on the Oriental localities where Alfred Russel Wallace collected. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 20 (7): 287–327.

Branstetter M.G., Danforth B.N., Pitts J.P., Faircloth B.C., Ward P.S., Buffington M.L., Gates M.W., Kula R.R. & Brady S.G. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.027

Burmeister H. 1854. Bemerkungen über den allgemeinen Bau und die Geschlechtsunterschiede bei den Arten der Gattung Scolia Fabr. Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Halle 1 (4): 1–46, 1 pl.

Cameron P. 1892. Hymenoptera orientalis; or contributions to a knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental zoological region. Part IV. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, series 4 5: 1–41. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8802

Cameron P. 1901. On the Hymenoptera collected during the “Skeat Expedition” to the Malay Peninsula, 1899–1900. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 2: 16–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1901.tb08163.x

Christ J.L. 1791. Naturgeschichte, Klassification und Nomenclatur der Insekten, vom Bienen, Wespen und Ameisengeschlecht; als der fünften Klassefünfte Ordnung des Linneischen Natursystems von den Insekten: Hymenoptera. Mit häutigen Flügeln. Hermannischen Buchhaublung, Frankfurt am Main. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.87724

de Dalla Torre C.G. 1897. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus Vol. 8. Fossores (Sphegidae). Guilelmi Engelmann, Leipzig [Lipsiae]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10348

Day M.C., Else G.R. & Morgan D. 1981. The most primitive Scoliidae (Hymenoptera). Journal of Natural History 15 (4): 671–684. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938100770471

Debevec A.H., Cardinal S. & Danforth B.N. 2012. Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of Aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea. Zoologica Scripta 41: 527–535. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00549.x

Dover C. 1926. A contribution to a list of the aculeate Hymenoptera (excepting ants) of Hongkong. China Journal of Science and Arts 4: 233–235.

Elliott M.G. 2011. Annotated catalogue of the Australian Scoliidae (Hymenoptera). Technical Reports of the Australian Museum 22: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.1835-4211.22.2011.1562

Fabricius J.C. 1775. Systema Entomologiae, Sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus. Korte, Flensburg und Leipzig [Flensburgi et Lipsiae]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36510

Fabricius J.C. 1793. Entomologia Systematica Emendata et Aucta: Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adjectis Synonimis, Locis, Observationibus, Descriptionibus. Vol. 2. Proft, Copenhagen [Hafniae].https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.125869

Fabricius J.C. 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae. Proft et Storch, Copenhagen [Hafniae]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.122153

Fabricius J.C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum: Ordines, Genera, Species; Synonymis, Locis, Observationibus, Descriptionibus. C. Reichard, Brunswick [Brunsvigae]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10490

Goulet H. & Huber J.T. (eds) 1993. Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research, Ottawa.

Guérin-Méneville F.C. 1838. Crustacés, arachnides et insectes. In: Duperrey L.I. (ed.) Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, Pendant les Années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Zoologie. Vol.2 pt 2: première division. Arthur Bertrand, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.57936

Guiglia D. 1965. Hymenoptera Scolioidea, Risultati scientifici della spedizione del Dr. Fred Keiserall Isola di Ceylon. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 76: 315–324.

Guiglia D. & Betrem J.G. 1958. The identity of the Scoliidae described by J.L. Christ. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale de Genova 70: 92–99.

Guiglia D. & Capra F. 1934. Revisione delle forme italiane del sottogenere Scolia. Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 66: 112–124.

Gupta S.K. & Jonathan J.K. 1989. On the description of Sericocampsomeris flavomaculata, sp. nov., with notes on the hitherto known species of the genus Sericocampsomeris Betrem (Hymenoptera Scoliidae). Annals of Entomology 7 (2): 53–57.

Gupta S.K. & Jonathan J.K. 2003. Fauna of India and the Adjacent Countries. Hymenoptera: Scoliidae. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

Huber B.A., Petcharad B. & Bumrungsri S. 2015. Revision of the enigmatic southeast Asian spider genus Savarna (Araneae, Pholcidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 160: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.160

Kim J.K. 2009. Taxonomic review of the tribe Campsomerini (Scoliinae, Scoliidae, Hymenoptera) in Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 25 (1): 99–106. https://doi.org/10.5635/KJSZ.2009.25.1.099

Kimsey L.S. & Brothers D.J. 2016. The life, publications and new taxa of Qabir Argaman (Carol Nagy). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 50: 141–178. https://doi.org/10.3897/JHR.50.7973

Klug F. 1805. Versuch einer Berichtigung der Fabriciusschen Gattungen Scolia und Tiphia. Beiträge zur Naturkunde 1: 8–40.

Krombein K.V. 1978. Biosystematic studies of Ceylonese wasps, II: a monograph of the Scoliidae (Hymenoptera: Scolioidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 283: 1–56. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.283

Kumar P.G. 2009. New record of Megascolia (Regiscolia) azurea christiana (Betrem & Guiglia) (Hymenoptera: Scoliida) from Mizoram, Orissa and Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 109 (1): 105–107.

Kumar P.G. & Kazmi S.I. 2008. New record of Megacampsomeris prismatica (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) from Delhi and Nagaland, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 108 (1): 101–103.

Kumar P.G. & Pham P.H. 2015. New distributional records of scoliids wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 115 (4): 325–335.

Latreille, P. A. 1810. Considérations Générales sur l’Ordre Naturel des Animaux Composant les Classes des Crustacés, des Arachnides, et des Insectes; avec un Tableau Méthodique de Leurs Genres, Disposés en Familles. F. Schoell, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.39620

Lepeletier A. 1845. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Hyménoptères. Vol. 3. Roret, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9005

Liu Z., Van Achterberg C., He J.-H., Chen X.-X. & Chen H.-Y. 2021a. Illustrated keys to Scoliidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Scolioidea) from China. ZooKeys 1025: 139–175. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1025.61385

Liu Z., Van Achterberg C., He J.-H. & Chen X.-X. 2021b. A checklist of Scoliidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Scolioidea) from China. Zootaxa 4966 (2): 101–126. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4966.2.1

Magretti P. 1892. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XLIII, Imenotteri. Parte prima. Mutillidei, Scoliidei, Tifiidei, Tinnidei colla descrizione di parecchie nuove specie. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 12 (2): 197–266.

Micha I. 1927. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Scoliiden. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 13: 1–156.

Naumann I.D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: Naumann I.D. (ed.) The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. 2nd Ed. Vol. 2: 916–1000. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.

Nidup T., Klein W., Kumar P.G. & Dorji P. 2017. New records of scoliids wasps (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae: Scoliinae) from Bhutan. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9 (7): 10487–10489. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3204.9.7.10487-10489

Osten T. 2005. Checkliste der Dolchwespen der Welt (Insecta: Hymenoptera, Scoliidae). Bericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Augsburg 62 (220–221): 1–62.

Pilgrim E.K., von Dohlen C.D. & Pitts J.P. 2008. Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies. Zoologica Scripta 37 (5): 539–560. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x

Rohwer S.A. 1911. On some hymenopterous insects from the island of Formosa. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 39: 477–485. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.1794.477

Rohwer S.A. 1921. The Philippine wasps of the subfamilies Scoliinae and Elidinae. Philippine Journal of Science 19: 75–90. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/692596

de Saussure H.L.F. 1855. Mélanges Hyménoptèrologiques. I. Vespides. Crabronides. Bembécides. Scolides. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève 14: 1–67.

de Saussure H.L.F. 1858. Description de diverses espèces nouvelles ou peu connues du genre Scolia. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, troisième série 6: 193–249.

de Saussure H.L.F. 1859. Description d’une série d’Hyménoptères nouveaux de la tribu des Scoliens. Stettiner Entomogische Zeitung 20: 171–191 + 260–269.

de Saussure H.L.F. 1863. Sur quelques scolies de Basse-Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, quatrième série 3: 17–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.1863.11755423

de Saussure H.L.F. & Sichel J. 1864. Catalogue des Espèces de l’Ancien Genre Scolia, Contenant les Diagnoses, les Descriptions et la Synonymie des Espèces, avec des Remarques Explicatives et Critiques. Henri George & V. Masson et Fils, Genève & Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9323

Smith F. 1855. Catalogue of the Hymenopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum, Part III. Mutillidae and Pompilidae. Printed by order of the Trustees, London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.20858

Terayama M. & Nagase H. 2007. Guide to the Japanese aculeate Wasps. 7. Family Scoliidae. Tsunekibachi 30: 1–26. [In Japanese.]

TIGER project 2008. Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research web site. Available from http://sharkeylab.org/tiger [accessed Mar. 2021].

Tsuneki K. 1972. Studies on the scoliid wasps of eastern Asia (Hymenoptera). Etizenia 62:1–41.

Turner R.E. 1911. Further notes on the Thynnidae and Scoliidae: notes on fossorial Hymenoptera V. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8 8: 602–624. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222931108693069

Uchida T. 1934. Revision der Japanischen Scoliiden mit Beschreibung der neuen Arten und Formen. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University 32 (6): 229–262.

Wang J. 1992. Hymenoptera: Scoliidae. In: Wu Y. (ed.) Iconography of Forest Insects in Hunan China: 1297–1301. Hunan Forestry Department. [In Chinese.]

Yasumatsu K. 1937. Hymenoptera collected in Tadao Kano’s expeditions (1929, 1933, 1935 and 1936) to Botel Tobago Island, I. Eumenidae, Scoliidae, Sphecidae and Xylocopidae. Mushi 9: 120–128.

Zhang J. 2006. A proscoliine wasp (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) from Shandong peninsula, East Asia. Cretaceous Research 27: 788–791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2006.03.010

How to Cite
Taylor, C., & Barthélémy, C. (2021). A review of the digger wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Scoliidae) of Hong Kong, with description of one new species and a key to known species. European Journal of Taxonomy, 786(1), 1–92. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.786.1607