Faunal composition, diversity, and distribution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Dhofar Governorate, Oman, with updated list of the Omani species and remarks on zoogeography

  • Mostafa R. Sharaf Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8137-0705
  • James K. Wetterer Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL, USA
  • Amr A. Mohamed Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, PO Box 12613, Giza, Egypt
  • Abdulrahman S. Aldawood Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Afrotropical Region, faunal list, Middle East, new synonymy, Palearctic Region


The Sultanate of Oman is a country on the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, near the intersection of the Afrotropical, Palaearctic, and Indomalayan biogeographic realms. We surveyed ants at 18 sites between 16 and 22 November 2017 using beating sheets, hand picking, Malaise traps, sifting trays, sweeping net, and light traps on the coastal plains and monsoon slopes of Dhofar Governorate in southwest Oman, an area that is relatively verdant due to its exposure to monsoons between June and September. We collected 37 ant species, including 11 species recorded for the first time from Oman: Camponotus diplopunctatus Emery, 1915, Cardiocondyla minutior Forel, 1899, Cardiocondyla wroughtonii (Forel, 1890), Carebara arabica (Collingwood & van Harten, 2001), Leptanilla islamica Baroni Urbani, 1977, Monomorium clavicorne André, 1881, Monomorium floricola (Jerdon, 1851), Monomorium sahlbergi Emery, 1898, Strumigenys membranifera Emery, 1869, Anochetus sedilloti Emery, 1884, and Hypoponera ragusai (Emery, 1894). In total, 130 ant species are now known from Oman, including 53 from Dhofar. The known ants of Dhofar are primarily of Afrotropical origin (23 species, 43%), followed by Palearctic (20 species, 38%), and Indomalayan (4 species, 8%), and a single species from both the Malagasy and Neotropical Regions (1%). Five species (9%) are apparently endemic to Dhofar, Lepisiota dhofara Collingwood & Agosti, 1996, Lepisiota elbazi Sharaf & Hita Garcia, 2020, Crematogaster jacindae Sharaf & Hita Garcia, 2019, Meranoplus mosalahi Sharaf, 2019, and Nesomyrmex micheleae Sharaf, 2020. The zoogeography of the Omani ant fauna reflects a clear dominance of faunal elements from the Palearctic Region (68 species, 53%) followed by Afrotropical faunal elements (45 species, 34%), and five species that are broadly spread throughout both the Palearctic and the Afrotropical Regions (4%). There are nine species (6%) from the Indomalayan Region, two species from the Neotropical Region (2%), T. melanocephalum, C. emeryi, and a single species Ph. megacephala (1%) from the Malagasy Region. The number of endemic species (15 species, 12%) is relatively low compared to the large geographical area of Oman and the broad diversity of habitats that characterizes the country.


Agavekar G., Hita Garcia F. & Economo E.P. 2017. Taxonomic overview of the hyperdiverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in India with descriptions and X-ray microtomography of two new species from the Andaman Islands. PeerJ 5: e3800. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3800

Aldawood A.S., Sharaf M.R. & Taylor B. 2011. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Saudi Arabia with description of a new species, C. abuhurayri sp. n. ZooKeys 92: 61–69. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.92.770

Al-Awadhi T., Al-Shukili A. & Al-Amri Q. 2011. The use of remote sensing & geographical information systems to identify vegetation: the case of Dhofar Governorate (Oman). 34th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Sydney, Australia, 10–15 April, 2011.

Allen C.H. Jr 2016. “1: Land and People”. In: Oman: The Modernization of the Sultanate: 1–8. Routledge, Abingdon, New York.

Andersen A.N. 2000. The Ants of Northern Australia: A Guide to the Monsoonal Fauna. CSIRO Publishing.

André E. 1881. Catalogue raisonné des Formicides provenant du voyage en Orient de M. Abeille de Perrin et description des espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (6) 1: 53–78.

AntWeb 2022. Version 8.8. California Academy of Science. Available from http://www.antweb.org [accessed 23 Aug. 2022].

Arnold E.N. 1980. The reptiles and amphibians of Dhofar, Southern Arabia. Journal of Oman Studies Special Report 2: 273–332.

Ball L. 2014. An investigation of odonate communities within Wadi Sayq, Dhofar province, Oman (Insecta: Odonata). Check List 10 (4): 857–863. https://doi.org/10.15560/10.4.857

Ball L., Al-Fazari W. & Borrell J.S. 2015. Birds of Wadi Sayq, Dhofar, Oman: British Exploring Society Expeditions January–March 2012 and 2013. Sandgrouse 37 (1): 2–12.

Baroni Urbani C. 1977. Materiali per una revisione della sottofamiglia Leptanillinae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologica Basiliensia 2: 427–488.

Bharti H., Akbar S.A., Wachkoo A.A. & Singh J. 2015. Taxonomic studies on ant genus Hypoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) from India. Asian Myrmecology 7: 37–51. https://doi.org/10.20362/am.007005

Bolton B. 1975. A revision of the ant genus Leptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ethiopian region with a review of the Malagasy species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 31: 235–305. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2355462 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Bolton B. 1976. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Constituent genera, review of smaller genera and revision of Triglyphothrix Forel. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 34: 281–379. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/41005164 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Bolton B. 1980. The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 40: 193–384. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2330038 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Bolton B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmicine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 45: 307–370. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2304987 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Bolton B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 46: 267–416. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.26848

Bolton B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 54: 263–452. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/41033255 [accessed 25 Jun. 2022].

Bolton B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bolton B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bolton B. 2000. The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 65: 1–1028.

Bolton B. 2021. An Online Catalog of the Ants of the World. Available from http://antcat.org [accessed 30 Dec. 2021].

Bolton B. & Fisher B.L. 2011. Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2843: 1–118. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2843.1.1

Borowiec L. & Salata S. 2013. Ants of Greece – additions and corrections (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 24: 335–401. https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.11430

Brandão C.R.F. 2000. Major regional and type collections of ants (Formicidae) of the world and sources for the identification of ant species. In: Agosti D., Majer J., Alonso L.E. & Schultz T.R. (eds) Ants. Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity. Biological diversity handbook series 3: 172–185. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. and London.

Brown W.L. Jr & Wilson E.O. 1959. The evolution of the dacetine ants. Quarterly Review of Biology 34: 278–294.

CIAWF. 2020. Central Intelligence Agency. Available from https://theodora.com/wfbcurrent/oman/oman_geography.html [accessed 26 Dec. 2021].

Clavero M. & García-Berthou E. 2005. Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20: 110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.01.003

Collingwood C.A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7: 230–302.

Collingwood C.A. & Agosti D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15: 300–385.

Collingwood C.A. & van Harten A. 2001. Additions to the ant fauna of Yemen (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Esperiana. Buchreihe zur Entomologie 8: 559–568.

Collingwood C.A., Tigar B.J. & Agosti D. 1997. Introduced ants in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Arid Environments 37: 505–512. https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1997.0309

Collingwood C.A., Pohl H., Guesten R., Wranik W. & van Harten A. 2004. The ants (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Socotra Archipelago. Fauna of Arabia 20: 473–495.

Collingwood C.A., Agosti D., Sharaf M.R. & van Harten A. 2011. Order Hymenoptera, family Formicidae. Arthropod Fauna of the UAE 4: 405–474.

Cowie R.H. 1989. The zoogeographical composition and distribution of the Arabian termite fauna. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 36: 157–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1989.tb00488.x

Dejean A. & Lachaud J.-P. 1994. Ecology and behavior of the seed-eating ponerine ant Brachyponera sennaarensis. Insectes Sociaux 41: 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01240478

Dey D. & Coumar A. 2008. Report of a third Camponotus species with metapleural gland from the world and first from India (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae: Camponotni). Acta Entomologica Sinica 51: 234–236. Available from https://www.antwiki.org/wiki/images/2/21/Dey_&_Coumar_2008.pdf [accessed 18 Aug. 2022].

Diame L., Taylor B., Blatrix R., Vayssières J.F., Rey J.Y., Grechi I. & Diarra K. 2017. A preliminary checklist of the ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) fauna of Senegal. Journal of Insect Biodiversity 5 (15): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2017.5.15

El-Sheikh M.A. 2013. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 20 (3): 291–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.03.001

Emery C. 1869. Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute. Annali dell’Accademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti Secunda Era 2: 1–26.

Emery C. 1877. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dal Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese dei Bogos. [concl.]. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 9: 363–381. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.25409

Emery C. 1881a. Spedizione italiana nell’Africa equatoriale. Risultati zoologici. Formiche. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 16: 270–276.

Emery C. 1881b. Viaggio ad Assab nel Mar Rosso dei Signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 novembre 1879 al 26 febbraio 1880. I. Formiche. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 16: 525–535. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.25414

Emery C. 1884. Materiali per lo studio della fauna Tunisina raccolti da G. e L. Doria. III. Rassegna delle formiche della Tunisia. [part]. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 21 [(2) 1]: 373–384. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6293971

Emery C. 1892. Sopra alcune formiche raccolte dall’Ingegnere L. Bricchetti Robecchi nel paese dei Somali. Dummy reference. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 32 [(2) 12]: 110–122. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.25431

Emery C. 1894. Descrizione di una nuova Formica di Sicilia. Il Naturalista Siciliano 14: 28.

Emery C. 1897. Formiche raccolte da Don Eugenio dei Principi Ruspoli, durante l'ultimo suo viaggio nelle regioni dei Somali e dei Galla. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria 38 [(2) 18]: 595–605.

Emery C. 1898. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der palaearktischen Ameisen. Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar 20: 124–151. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.14980

Emery C. 1901. Spicilegio mirmecologico. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 33: 57–63.

Emery C. 1915a. Sur le type de Camponotus maculatus (Formica maculata F.) (Hym. Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 1915: 79–80. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/9212999 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Emery C. 1915b. Formiche raccolte nell’Eritrea dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d’Agricoltura in Portici 10: 3–26. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14972248 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Espadaler X. 2007. The ants of El Hierro (Canary Islands). In: Snelling R.R., Fisher B.L. & Ward P.S. (eds) Advances in Ant Systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E.O. Wilson - 50 Years of Contributions: 113–127. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80.

Espadaler X. & Bernal V. 2003. Exotic ants in the Canary Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Vieraea 31: 1–7.

Evenhuis N.L. 2019. The insect and spider collections of the world website. Available from http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/codens/ [accessed 10 May 2019].

Fabricius J.C. 1793. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2. C.G. Proft, Hafniae [Copenhagen]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.125869

Fabricius J.C. 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae. Proft and Storch, Hafniae [Copenhagen]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.122153

Finzi B. 1936. Risultati scientifici della spedizione di S.A.S. il Principe Alessandro della Torre e Tasso nell’Egitto e peninsola del Sinai. XI. Formiche. Bulletin. Société entomologique d’Egypte 20: 155–210.

Finzi B. 1940 (“1939”). Formiche della Libia. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 18: 155–166.

Forel A. 1890. Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 34: cii–cxiv.

Forel A. 1892. Die Akazien-Crematogaster von Prof. Keller aus dem Somaliland. Zoologischer Anzeiger 15: 140–143.

Forel A. 1894. Abessinische und andere afrikanische Ameisen, gesammelt von Herrn Ingenieur Alfred Ilg, von Herrn Dr. Liengme, von Herrn Pfarrer Missionar P. Berthoud, Herrn Dr. Arth. Müller etc. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 9: 64–100.

Forel A. 1899. Heterogyna (Formicidae). Fauna Hawaiiensis 1: 116–122.

Forel A. 1902. Myrmicinae nouveaux de l’Inde et de Ceylan. Revue suisse de Zoologie 10: 165–249. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.13792

Forel A. 1903. Mélanges entomologiques, biologiques et autres. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 47: 249–268.

Forel A. 1904. Note sur les fourmis du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences à St. Pétersbourg. Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskago Muzeya 8: 368–388.

Forel A. 1910. Ameisen aus der Kolonie Erythräa. Gesammelt von Prof. Dr. K. Escherich (nebst einigen in west-Abessinien von Herrn A. Ilg gesammelten Ameisen). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 29: 243–274.

Forel A. 1913. Fourmis de la faune méditerranéenne récoltées par MM. U. et J. Sahlberg. Revue suisse de Zoologie 21: 427–438. Available from https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10712981 [accessed 25 Jul. 2022].

Freitas A. 1995. Nest relocation and prey specialization in the ant Leptogenys propefalcigera Roger (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) in an urban area in southeastern Brazil. Insectes Sociaux 42: 453–456. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01242173

Gómez K. 2017. Two exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) new to Malta. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 61: 233–235.

Gómez K. & Espadaler X. 2006. Exotic ants in the Balearic Islands. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 225–233.

Guichard K.M. 1980. A preliminary account of the sphecid wasps of Oman (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). The Journal of Oman Studies, Special Report 2: 223–232.

Hájek J. & Reiter A. 2014. Adephagous water beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae) of Yemen and Dhofar region (Oman) with description of a new Hyphydrus from Socotra Island. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 54: 63–99.

Harada Y. 1990. Ant pests of the Tapinomini Tribe. In: Vander Meer R.K., Jaffe K. & Cedeno A. (eds) Applied Myrmecology. A World Perspective: 298–315. Westview Press, Boulder.

Harris R.A. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occasional Papers in Entomology 28: 1–31.

Hausmann A. 2009. New and interesting geometrid moths from Dhofar, southern Oman (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 99: 111–128.

Heterick B. 2006. A revision of the Malagasy ants belonging to genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (4) 57: 69–202.

Hita Garcia F. & Fisher B.L. 2011. The ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Malagasy region — introduction, definition of species groups, and revision of the T. bicarinatum, T. obesum, T. sericeiventre and T. tosii species groups. Zootaxa 3039: 1–72. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3039.1.1

Hölldobler B. & Wilson E.O. 1990. The Ants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Hölldobler B. & Wilson E.O. 1994. Journey to the Ants: A Story of Scientific Exploration. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ionescu A. & Eyer P.A. 2016. Notes on Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 of the bicolor species-group in Israel, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 46: 109–131.

Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. An annotated list of Camponotus of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key and descriptions of new species. Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 57–98.

Jerdon T.C. 1851. A catalogue of the species of ants found in Southern India. Madras Journal of Literature and Science 17: 103–127.

Kempf W. 1972. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da Regiao Neotropical. Studia Entomologica (N.S.) 15: 3–344.

Kiran K. & Karaman C. 2012. First annotated checklist of the ant fauna of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3548: 1–38. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3548.1.1

Klotz J., Hansen L., Pospischil R. & Rust M. 2008. Urban Ants of North America and Europe: Identification, Biology, and Management. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London.

Kooij J. 2001. The herpetofauna of the Sultanate of Oman: Part 3: The true lizards, skinks and monitor lizards. Podarcis 2 (1): 15–26.

Krombein K.V., Hurd P.D. Jr, Smith D.R. & Burks B.D. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico 2 Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.5074

Kugler J. 1981. A new species of Cataglyphis Förster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Israel and Sinai. Israel Journal of Entomology 15: 83–88.

Kugler J. 1984. The males of Cardiocondyla Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of the winged male of Cardiocondyla wroughtoni (Forel). Israel Journal of Entomology 17: 1–21.

Kuznetsov-Ugamsky N.N. 1929. Die Gattung Acantholepis in Turkestan. Zoologischer Anzeiger 82: 477–492.

LaPolla J.S., Hawkes P.G. & Fisher B.L. 2011. Monograph of Nylanderia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the world, Part I: Nylanderia in the Afrotropics. Zootaxa 3110: 10–36. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3110.1.2

Larsen T.B. & Larsen K. 1980. The Butterflies of Oman. Bartholomew, Edinburgh.

Latreille P.A. 1802. Histoire naturelle des fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Impr. Crapelet (chez T. Barrois), Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11138

Lattke J.E. 2011. Revision of the New world species of the genus Leptogenys Roger (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 69: 127–264.

Lévieux J. 1972. Le rôle des fourmis dans les réseaux trophiques d’une savane préforestière de Côte d’Ivoire. Annales de l’Université d’Abidjan, sér. E 5: 143–240.

Mack R.N., Simberloff D., Mark Lonsdale W., Evans H., Clout M. & Bazzaz F.A. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10: 689–710. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2

Mayr G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 649–776. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.25912

Mayr G. 1866. Diagnosen neuer und wenig gekannter Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 16: 885–908. https.//doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.25847

Mayr G. 1870. Neue Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 20: 939–996.

Mayr G. 1904. Formiciden aus Ägypten und dem Sudan. In: Jägerskiöld L.A. (ed.) Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the white Nile, 1901 Part 1 (no. 9). Library of the Royal University of Uppsala, Uppsala. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.21727

Melnikov D. & Pierson T. 2012. A new species of Pseudotrapelus (Agamidae, Sauria) from Dhofar, Oman. Current Herpetology 12: 143–151.

Miller A.G. & Morris M. 1988. Plants of Dhofar (The Southern Region of Oman; Traditional, Economic and Medicinal Uses). The office of the Adviser for Conservation of the Environment, Diwan of Royal Court, Sultanate of Oman.

Moradloo S., Fard R.N., Rad S.P. & Taylor B. 2015. Records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Northern Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 61: 168–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2015.1020611

Mosti S., Raffaelli M. & Tardelli M. 2006. A contribution to the flora of Wadi Andur (Dhofar, Southern Oman). Webbia 61 (2): 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/00837792.2006.10670805

Mosti S., Raffaelli M. & Tardelli M. 2012. Contribution to the Flora of Central-Southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman). Webbia 67 (1): 65–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/00837792.2012.10670909

Neubert E. & van Damme D. 2012. Palaeogene continental molluscs of Oman. Contributions to Natural History 20: 1–21.

Paknia O., Radchenko A.G., Alipanah H. & Pfeiffer M. 2008. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran. Myrmecological News 11: 151–159.

Patzelt A. 2014. Oman Plant Red Data Book. Oman Botanic Garden Publication No. 1, Diwan of Royal Court, Oman Botanic Garden, Sultanate of Oman.

Pederzani F. 2003. Hydaticus satoi dhofarensis n. ssp. from Oman (Insecta, Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Quaderno di Studi e Notizie di Storia Naturale della Romagna 17: 17–24.

Pesenko Y.A. & Pauly A. 2009. A contribution to the fauna of the Nomioidine bees of the Arabian Peninsula (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Fauna of Arabia 24: 217–236.

Pisarski B. 1965. Les fourmis du genre Cataglyphis Foerst. en Irak (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin de l’Académie polonaise des Sciences 13: 417–422.

Platia G. & Schimmel R. 1997. Click-beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Sultanate of Oman with additional new species and records from neighboring regions. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 16: 291–318.

Polak S. & Verovnik R. 2009. Second contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of the Sultanate of Oman (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Acta Entomologica Slovenica 17 (1): 37–44.

Rad S.P., Taylor B., Torabi R., Aram E., Abolfathi G., Afshari R., Borjali F., Ghatei M., Hediary H., Jazini F., Kiah V.H., Mahmoudi F., Safariyan F. & Seiri M. 2018. Further records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 64: 145–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2018.1442301

Radchenko A. 1997. Review of ants from the subgenera Tanaemyrmex, Colobopsis, Myrmamblis, Myrmosericus, Orthonotomyrmex and Paramyrmamblis from the genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Asian Palaearctic. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 76 (6): 806–815. [in Russian, English summary.]

Rakotonirina J.C. & Fisher B.L. 2014. Revision of the Malagasy ponerine ants of the genus Leptogenys Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3836: 1–163. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3836.1.1

Roger J. 1857. Einiges über Ameisen. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift 1: 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.18570010106

Rounaghi I. & Hosseinian Y.S.S. 2018. Effects of climate change on niche shifts of Pseudotrapelus dhofarensis and Pseudotrapelus jensvindumi (Reptilia: Agamidae) in western Asia. PLoS ONE 13 (5): e0197884. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197884

Santschi F. 1911. Formicides de diverses provenances. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 55: 278–287.

Santschi, F. 1920. Cinq nouvelles notes sur les fourmis. Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des Sciences naturelles 53: 163–186.

Santschi F. 1927. Revision des Messor du groupe instabilis Sm. (Hymenopt.). Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 27: 225–250. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.14221

Sarnat E.M., Fischer G., Guénard B. & Economo E.P. 2015. Introduced Pheidole of the world: taxonomy, biology and distribution. ZooKeys 533: 1–109. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.543.6050

Schneider W. & Krupp F. 1993. Dragonfly records from Saudi Arabia with an annotated checklist of the species from the Arabian Peninsula (Insecta: Odonata). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 13: 63–78.

Seifert B. 2003. The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) – a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. B, Botanik, Zoologie 104: 203–338.

Sharaf M.R. 2006. Taxonomic and Ecological Studies on Family Formicidae (Order: Hymenoptera) in Egypt Including Some Protectorates With a Study of Some Insect Fauna Associated With Ant Species. PhD thesis [unpublished]. Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Entomology Department, Cairo.

Sharaf M.R. & Aldawood A.S. 2013. Ants of the genus Carebara in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species. ZooKeys 357: 67–83. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.357.5946

Sharaf M.R. & Aldawood A.S. 2019. Review of the ant genus Meranoplus Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species M. mosalahi sp. n. from Oman. PeerJ 7: e6287. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6287

Sharaf M.R., Abdeldayem M.S., Aldhafer H. & Aldawood A.S. 2013. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rawdhat Khorim nature preserve, Saudi Arabia, with description of a new species of the genus Tetramorium Mayr. Zootaxa 3709 (6): 565–580. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3709.6.6

Sharaf M.R., Fisher B.L. & Aldawood A.S. 2014. Notes on Ants of the genus Strumigenys F. Smith, 1860 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a key to species. Sociobiology 61 (3): 293–301. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v61i3.293-299

Sharaf M.R., Collingwood C.A., Al Dhafer H.M., Al Mutairi M.S. & Aldawood A.S. 2015a. New synonyms of two Arabian ants of the genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 505: 51–58. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.505.9441

Sharaf M.R., Al-Hajri S.H. & Aldawood A.S. 2015b. First record of the ant genus Strumigenys S. Smith, 1860 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Qatar by the invasive species S. membranifera Emery, 1869. Zoology in the Middle East 61: 362–367. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2015.1095514

Sharaf M.R., Monks J., Polaszek A. & Aldawood A.S. 2016a. A remarkable new species of the genus Lepisiota Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Oman and the United Arab Emirates, with a key to the Arabian species. Journal of Natural History 50 (29–30): 1875–1887. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2016.1180722

Sharaf M.R., Salman S., Al Dhafer H.M., Akbar S.A., Abdel-Dayem M.S. & Aldawood A.S. 2016b. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with description of two new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 246: 1–38. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.246

Sharaf M.R., Monks J., Aldawood A.S. & Polaszek A. 2017a. Anochetus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with description of a new species from Oman. The Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119 (1): 78–98. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.119.1.78

Sharaf M.R., Akbar S.A., Aldawood A.S. & Hita Garcia F. 2017b. Review of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) from the Arabian Peninsula. African Invertebrates 58 (2): 21–37. https://doi.org/10.3897/AfrInvertebr.58.12782

Sharaf M.R., Fisher B.L., Collingwood C.A. & Aldawood S.A. 2017c. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen): zoogeography, distribution and description of a new species. Journal of Natural History 51 (5–6): 317–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2016.1271157

Sharaf M.R., Fisher B.L., Al Dhafer H.M., Polaszek A. & Aldawood A.S. 2018a. Additions to the ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Oman: an updated list, new records and a description of two new species. Asian Myrmecology 9: e010004. https://doi.org/10.20362/am.010004

Sharaf M.R., Al Dhafer H.M., Aldawood A.S. & Hita Garcia F. 2018b. Ants of the Monomorium monomorium species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species from southwestern Saudi Arabia. PeerJ 6: e4277. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4277

Sharaf M.R., Aldawood A.S. & Hita Garcia F. 2019. Review of the Arabian Crematogaster Lund (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), synoptic list, distribution, and description of two new species from Oman and Saudi Arabia. ZooKeys 898: 27–81. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.898.37531

Sharaf M.R., Aldawood A.S., Mohamed A.A. & Hita Garcia F. 2020a. The genus Lepisiota Santschi, 1926 of the Arabian Peninsula with the description of a new species, Lepisiota elbazi sp. nov. from Oman, an updated species identificartion key, and assessment of zoogeographic affinities. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 76: 127–152. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.76.50193

Sharaf M.R., Mohamed A.A., Al Dhafer H.M. & Aldawood A.S. 2020b. Nesomyrmex micheleae, a new ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Dhofar, Oman, with a synoptic list, distribution map and key to the Arabian Nesomyrmex. Journal of Natural History 54: 351–365. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2020.1762013

Sharaf M.R., Mohamed A.A., Boudinot B.E., Wetterer J.K., Hita Garcia F., Al Dhafer H.M. & Aldawood A.S. 2021. Monomorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Arabian Peninsula with description of two new species, M. heggyi sp. n. and M. khalidi sp. n. PeerJ 9: e10726. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10726

Šmíd J. 2010. New remarkable snake records from Oman. Herpetology Notes 3: 329–332.

Smith F. 1858. Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. British Museum, London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.20858

Snelling R.R. 2005. Wasps, ants, and bees: aculeate Hymenoptera. In: Lazell J. (ed.) Island: Fact and Theory in Nature: 283–296. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Sorger D.M., Booth W., Wassie Eshete A.M., Lowman M. & Moffett W. 2017. Outnumbered: a new dominant ant species with genetically diverse supercolonies in Ethiopia. Insectes Sociaux 64: 141–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-016-0524-9

Taheri A. & Reyes-López L. 2018. Exotic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Morocco: checklist, comments and new faunistic data. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 144 (1): 99–107. https://doi.org/10.3157/061.144.0104

Taiti S., Ferrara F. & Davolos D. 2000. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea: Oniscidea) of Oman. Fauna of Arabia 18: 145–163.

Taylor B. 2019. The Ants of Sub-Saharan Africa. Available from http://antsofafrica.org [accessed 13 Jun. 2019].

Taylor B., Yefremova Z.A., Kravchenko V.B. & Müller G.C. 2016. The ants of Mali (Hymenoptera: Formicidae – a historical review and new records. Entomofauna 37: 545–564.

Vail K., Davis L., Wojcik D., Koehler P. & Williams D. 1994. Structure-Invading Ants of Florida. Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin SP 164, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville.

Vonshak M. & Ionescu-Hirsch A. 2009. A checklist of the ants of Israel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 39: 33–55.

Waterston A.R. & Pittaway A.R. 1991. The Odonata or dragonflies of Oman and neighbouring territories. Journal of Oman Studies 10: 131–168.

Wetterer J.K. 2008. Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.

Wetterer J.K. 2009. Worldwide spread of the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 23–33.

Wetterer J.K. 2010a. Worldwide spread of the wooly ant, Tetramorium lanuginosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 13: 81–88.

Wetterer J.K. 2010b. Worldwide spread of the flower ant, Monomorium floricola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 13: 19–27.

Wetterer J.K. 2011. Worldwide spread of the membraniferous dacetine ant, Strumigenys membranifera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 14: 129–135.

Wetterer J.K. 2012. Worldwide spread of the African big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 17: 51–62.

Wetterer J.K. & Hita Garcia F. 2015. Worldwide spread of Tetramorium caldarium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 21: 93–99.

Wetterer J.K., Miller S.E., Wheeler D.E., Olson C.A., Polhemus D.A., Pitts M., Ashton I.W., Himler A.G., Yospin M.M., Helms K.R., Harken E.L., Gallaher J., Dunning C.E., Nelson M., Litsinger J., Southern A. & Burgess T.L. 1999. Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Florida Entomologist 82: 381–388.

Weygoldt P., Pohl H. & Polak S. 2002. Arabian whip spiders: Four new species of the genera Charinus and Phrynichus (Chelicerata: Amblypygi) from Oman and Socotra. Fauna of Arabia 19: 289–309.

Wilson E.O. & Taylor R.W. 1967. The ants of Polynesia. Pacific Insects Monograph 14: 1–109.

How to Cite
Sharaf, M. R., Wetterer, J. K., Mohamed, A. A., & Aldawood, A. S. (2022). Faunal composition, diversity, and distribution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Dhofar Governorate, Oman, with updated list of the Omani species and remarks on zoogeography. European Journal of Taxonomy, 838(1), 1–106. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.838.1925