Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae)

  • Alexander E. Fedosov A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, 119071, Leninsky prospect, 33, Moscow
  • Peter Stahlschmidt Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau
  • Nicolas Puillandre Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 43 rue Cuvier, CP26, F-75005, Paris
  • Laetitia Aznar-Cormano Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 43 rue Cuvier, CP26, F-75005, Paris
  • Philippe Bouchet Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 55 rue Buffon, CP26, F-75005, Paris
Keywords: integrative taxonomy, species delimitation, Indo-Pacific, COI, 16S


The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic Hemilienardia, H. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.


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How to Cite
Fedosov, A. E., Stahlschmidt, P., Puillandre, N., Aznar-Cormano, L., & Bouchet, P. (2017). Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae). European Journal of Taxonomy, (268).