The fouling serpulids (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from United States coastal waters: an overview

  • J. Rolando Bastida-Zavala Universidad del Mar, Campus Puerto Ángel, Laboratorio de Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos (LABSIM), Ciudad Universitaria, Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, 70902, Apdo. Postal 47
  • Linda D. McCann Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, Maryland, 21037
  • Erica Keppel Italian National Research Council (CNR), ISMAR Institute of Marine Sciences, Arsenale di Venezia, Tesa 104, I–30122 Venice
  • Gregory M. Ruiz Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P.O. Box 28, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, Maryland, 21037
Keywords: Ficopomatus, fouling, Hydroides, non-indigenous species, tube worms


Serpulids are an important component of fouling communities. This paper provides an overview of the serpulid species found in North America, as part of a broader study of fouling invertebrates focused on NIS (non-indigenous species) in United States coastal ecosystems. Almost 4400 serpulid specimens were examined from selected fouling plates. Fouling plates were deployed in 26 bays and coastal lagoons along the continental coasts of the United States and Hawaiian islands, primarily in bays and lagoons with salinities averaging 20‰ or greater. Twenty-five serpulid species were identified, including four new records for the United States (Ficopomatus uschakovi, Hydroides cf. brachyacantha, H. longispinosa and Protula longiseta), three known NIS, two presumed NIS, three cryptogenic serpulids, and several range extensions. Crucigera websteri extends its northward range from Santa Barbara Island to Humboldt Bay, California; Ficopomatus enigmaticus, first recorded in North America from San Francisco, California in 1920, Rockport, Texas in 1952 and Barnegat Bay, New Jersey in 1980, is now recorded at additional localities on the east coast (Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, Charleston, South Carolina and Indian River, Florida) and the northern Gulf of Mexico (Galveston Bay, Texas); F. miamiensis extends its westward range from Louisiana to Texas; F. uschakovi, an Indo-Pacific and Western African species, was recorded formally for the first time from the northern Gulf of Mexico (Galveston Bay and Corpus Christi, Texas) and the east coast of Florida (Jacksonville). Hydroides cf. brachyacantha extends its northward range from Curaҫao to Pensacola Bay, Florida; H. dirampha from Veracruz, Mexico to Corpus Christi, Texas; H. floridana extends its westward range from Louisiana to Texas; H. gracilis extends its northward range from Pacific Grove to San Francisco, California; Salmacina huxleyi from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Rhode Island; and Spirobranchus minutus from Veracruz, Mexico to Pensacola Bay, Florida. The following additional species range extensions are provisional in that they represent only one record or were not found in the most recent surveys (e.g., Hydroides elegans - east coast): H. longispinosa from Marshall Islands to Oahu, Hawaii; Protula balboensis from Florida to Texas; P. longiseta from the Mexican Caribbean to the Indian River, Florida; H. elegans from San Francisco to Humboldt Bay, northern California and on the east coast from the Indian River, Florida, to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Among surveyed bays, Biscayne Bay, Florida and Corpus Christi, Texas (northern Gulf of Mexico) had the greatest number of species (14 and 8, respectively); in contrast, almost all sites in Alaska, Washington, Oregon (northwest Pacific), Rhode Island, Virginia and South Carolina (Atlantic) had only one or two species each. Hydroides dianthus was, by far, the most abundant serpulid species on fouling plates in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast, while Pseudochitinopoma occidentalis was the most abundant serpulid detected on the west coast. For each species recorded herein, we include the synonyms and some key references, a material studied section, a diagnosis, and updated distributional information. A checklist and identification key to the known shallow-water serpulids sensu stricto of the United States are included.


Abildgaard P.C. 1789. Beschreibung 1. Einer grossen Seeblase (Holothuria Priapus Linn.) 2. Zween Arten des Steinbohrers (Terebella Linn.) 3. Einer grossen Sandröhre (Sabella Linn.). Schriften der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde 9: 133–146.

Arteaga-Flórez C., Fernández-Rodríguez V. & Londoño-Mesa M.H. 2014. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America. ZooKeys 371: 1–11.

Assis J.E. de, Alonso C. & Christoffersen M.L. 2008. First record of Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) Serpulidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) for the Western Atlantic. Revista Nordestina de Biologia 19: 51–58.

Augener H. 1914. Polychaeta, II, Sedentaria. In: Michaelsen W. & Hartmeyer R. (eds) Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens 5 (1): 170 pp.

Augener H. 1922. Ueber litorale Polychaeten von Westindien. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft der naturforschende Freunde zu Berlin 1922 (3–5): 38–53.

Augener H. 1925. Ueber Westindische und einige andere Polychaeten-Typen von Grube (Oersted), Krøyer, Mörch und Schmarda. Publikationer fra Universitetets Zoologiske Museum i København 39: 1–47.

Augener H. 1927. Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Fauna van Curacao. Resultaten eener Reis van Dr. C.J. van der Horst in 1920. Polychaeten von Curaçao. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 25: 39–82.

Augener H. 1934. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam. IV Schluss. Zoologische Mededeelingen 17: 67–160.

Bailey-Brock J.H. 1976. Habitats of tubicolous polychaetes from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Pacific Science 30 (1): 69–81.

Bailey-Brock J.H. 1987. Phylum Annelida. In: Devaney D.M. & Eldredge L.G. (eds) Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii. Section 3: Sipuncula through Annelida: 213–453. Special Publication of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 64.

Bailey-Brock J.H., Magalhães W.F. & Brock R.C. 2012. Coral reef inhabiting tubeworms (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from Enewetak, Kwajalein, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, Marshall Islands. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92 (5): 967–988.

Baird W. 1865. Description of several new species and varieties of tubicolous annelides = Tribe Limivora of Grube, in the collection of the British Museum. Part 1. Journal of the Linnean Society of London 8: 10–22.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. 1993. Taxonomía y composición biogeográfica de los poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) de la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S., México. Revista de Investigación Científica 4: 11–39.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. 1995. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) del arrecife coralino de Cabo Pulmo-Los Frailes, B.C.S., México. Revista de Zoología, ENEPi, UNAM 6: 9–29.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. 2008. Serpulids (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the eastern Pacific, including a brief mention of Hawaiian serpulids. Zootaxa 1722: 1–61.

Bastida-Zavala R. 2012. Serpula and Spiraserpula (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Tropical Western Atlantic and Gulf of Guinea. ZooKeys 198: 1–23.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. & García-Madrigal S. 2012. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae). ZooKeys 238: 45–55.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. & ten Hove H.A. 2002. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region. Beaufortia 52: 103–178.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. & ten Hove H.A. 2003. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Eastern Pacific Region and Hawaii. Beaufortia 53: 67–110.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. & Salazar-Vallejo S.I. 2000a. Serpúlidos (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) del Caribe noroccidental con claves para la región del Gran Caribe: Salmacina, Ficopomatus, Pomatoceros, Pomatostegus, Protula, Pseudovermilia, Spirobranchus y Vermiliopsis. Revista de Biología Tropical 48: 807–840.

Bastida-Zavala J.R. & Salazar-Vallejo S.I. 2000b. Serpúlidos (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) del Caribe noroccidental: Hydroides y Serpula. Revista de Biología Tropical 48: 841–858.

Bastida-Zavala J.R., Rodríguez Buelna A.S., de León-González J.A., Camacho-Cruz K.A. & Carmona I. 2016. New records of sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta: Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Zootaxa 4184 (3): 401–457.

Benedict J.E. 1887. Descriptions of ten species and one new genus of the annelids from the dredgings of the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Albatross. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9: 547–553.

Ben-Eliahu M.N. 1991. Red Sea serpulids (Polychaeta) in the eastern Mediterranean. In: Petersen M.E. & Kirkegaard J.B. (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd International Polychaete Conference. Systematics, Biology and Morphology of World Polychaeta. Ophelia Supplement 5: 515–528. Copenhagen.

Ben-Eliahu M.N. & ten Hove H.A. 1989. Redescription of Rhodopsis pusilla Bush, a little known but widely distributed species of Serpulidae (Polychaeta). Zoologica Scripta 18: 381–395.

Ben-Eliahu M.N. & ten Hove H.A. 1992. Serpulids (Annelida: Polychaeta) along the Mediterranean coast of Israel—New population build-ups of Lessepsian migrants. Israel Journal of Zoology 38: 35–53.

Ben-Eliahu M.N. & ten Hove H.A. 2011. Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Suez Canal— From a Lessepsian migration perspective. Zootaxa 2848: 1–147.

Berkeley E. 1930. Polychaetous annelids from the Nanaimo district. Part. 5. Ammocharidae to Myzostomidae. With an appendix on some pelagic forms from the Straits of Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver Island. Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries 6 (5): 67–77.

Berkeley E. & Berkeley C. 1941. On a collection of Polychaeta from Southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 40 (1): 16–60.

Berkeley E. & Berkeley C. 1958. Some notes on a collection of Polychaeta from the northeast Pacific south of latitude 32° N. Canadian Journal of Zoology 36: 399–407.

Berkeley E. & Berkeley C. 1961. Notes on Polychaeta from California to Peru. Canadian Journal of Zoology 39: 655–664.

Berkeley M.J. 1835. Observations upon the Dentalium subulatum of Deshayes. The Zoological Journal 5: 424–427.

Bianchi C.N. & Morri C. 2001. The battle is not to the strong: serpulid reefs in the lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53: 215–220.

Boltachova N.A., Lisitskaya E.V. & Lebedovskaya M.V. 2011. [New record of] Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the coastal waters of Crimea (the Black Sea). Marine Ecological Journal 10 (2): 34–38.

Bosc L.A.G. 1801. Histoire naturelle des Vers: contenant leur Description et leurs Moeurs, avec Figures dessinées d’après Nature. Guilleminet, Paris 2.

Bush K.J. 1905. Tubicolous annelids of the tribes Sabellides and Serpulides from the Pacific Ocean. In: Merriam C.H. (ed.) Harriman Alaska Expedition with Cooperation of Washington Academy of Sciences 12: 169–346. Doubleday, Page and Company, New York.

Bush K.J. 1907. Descriptions of the two genera of tubicolous annelids, Paravermilia and Pseudovermilia, with species from Bermuda referable to them. The American Journal of Science 28 (134): 131–136.

Bush K.J. 1910. Description of new serpulids from Bermuda with notes on known forms from adjacent regions. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 62: 490–501.

Carlton J.T. 1979. History, Biogeography, and Ecology of the Introduced Marine and Estuarine Invertebrates of the Pacific coast of North America. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis.

Carlton J.T. & Eldredge L.G. 2009. Marine Bioinvasions of Hawai’i. The Introduced and Cryptogenic Marine and Estuarine Animals and Plants of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Carlton J.T. & Eldredge L.G. 2015. Update and revision of the marine bioinvasions of Hawai’i: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian Archipelago. In: Evenhuis N.L. & Carlton J.T. (eds) Lucius G. Eldredge III Memorial Volume: Tribute to a Polymath. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Zoology 9: 25–47.

Carrera-Parra L.F. & Vargas-Hernández J.M. 1997. Comunidad críptica de esponjas del arrecife de Isla de Enmedio, Veracruz, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 44 (3) / 45 (1): 311–320.

Chamberlin R.V. 1919a. New polychaetous annelids from Laguna Beach, California. Journal of Entomology and Zoology 11: 1–23.

Chamberlin R.V. 1919b. Pacific coast Polychaeta collected by Alexander Agassiz. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 63 (6): 250–270.

Çinar M.E. 2006. Serpulid species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Levantine coast of Turkey (eastern Mediterranean), with special emphasis on alien species. Aquatic Invasions 1 (4): 223–240.

Çinar M.E. 2013. Alien polychaete species worldwide: current status and their impacts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93 (5): 1257–1278.

Claparède É. 1870. Les annélides chétopodes du Golfe de Naples. Supplément. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève 20 (1): 1–225.

Cohen A.N. 2011. The exotics guide: Non-native marine species of the North American Pacific Coast. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, California. Available from [accessed 12 Dec. 2015].

Cohen A.N. & Carlton J.T. 1995. Biological study. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: A case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. A report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., and The National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant. NTIS Report Number PB96–166525, 246 pp.

Cushman J.A. 1906. The Pleistocene deposits of Sankoty Head, Nantucket, and their fossils. The Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association 1 (1): 3–21.

Day J.H. 1967. A Monograph on the Polychaeta of South Africa. Part 2: Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Day J.H. 1973. New Polychaeta from Beaufort with a key to all species recorded from North Carolina. NOAA Technical Report. NMFS CIRC-375, Seattle.

deRivera C.E., Ruiz G.M., Crooks J.A., Wasson K., Lonhart S.I., Fofonoff P., Steves B.P., Rumrill S.S., Brancato M.S., Pegau W.S., Bulthuis D.A., Preisler R.K., Schoch G.C., Bowlby E., DeVogelaere A., Crawford M.K., Gittings S.R., Hines A.H., Takata L., Larson K., Huber T., Leyman A.M., Collinetti E., Pasco T., Shull S., Anderson M. & Powell S. 2005. Broad-Scale Nonindigenous Species Monitoring along the West Coast in National Marine Sanctuaries and National Estuarine Research Reserves. Report to the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, San Francisco, California.

Dew B. 1959. Serpulidae (Polychaeta) from Australia. Records of The Australian Museum 25 (2): 19–56.

Díaz V. 1994. Polychaetes from the island of Barbados, W.I. Settlement and succession. In: Dauvin J.-C., Laubier L. & Reish D.J. (eds) Actes de la 4ème Conférence international des Polychètes: 618. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle 162, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.

Díaz-Castañeda V. 2000. The early establishment and development of a polychaete community settled on artificial substrata at Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. Bulletin of Marine Science 67 (1): 321–335.

Díaz-Castañeda V. & Valenzuela-Solano S. 2009. Polychaete fauna in the vicinity of bluefin tuna sea-cages in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Zoosymposia 2: 505–526.

Díaz-Díaz O. & Liñero-Arana I. 2001. Poliquetos asociados a substratos artificiales sumergidos en la costa nororiental de Venezuela. II: Serpulidae y Spirorbidae. Boletín del Instituto de Oceanografía de Venezuela 40 (1–2): 9–20.

Dueñas P.D. 1981. Inventario preliminar de los poliquetos (Annelida) de aguas someras de la Bahía de Cartagena y áreas adyacentes. Boletín del Museo del Mar (10): 82–138.

Dueñas P.D. 1999. Algunos poliquetos (Annelida) del Caribe colombiano. Milenio 1 (2): 9–18.

Edmonson C.H. 1944. Incidence of fouling in Pearl Harbor. Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 18 (1): 1–34.

Edmonson C.H. & Ingram W.M. 1939. Fouling organisms in Hawaii. Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 14 (14): 251–300.

Ehlers E. 1887. Reports on the results of dredging, under the direction of L.F. Pourtalès, during the years 1868–1870, and of Alexander Agassiz, in the Gulf of Mexico (1877–78), and in the Caribbean Sea (1878–79), in the U.S. Coast Survey steamer “Blake”, Lieut-Com. C.D. Sigsbee, U.S.N. and Commander J.R. Bartlett, U.S.N., commanding. XXXI. Report on the annelids. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 15: 1–355.

Ehlers E. 1905. Neuseeländische Anneliden. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse, Neue Folge 3 (1): 1–80.

Fauchald K. 1977. The Polychaete Worms, Definitions and Keys to the Orders, Families and Genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series, 28.

Fauvel P. 1919. Annélides polychètes de la Guyane française. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle 23: 472–479.

Fauvel P. 1923. Un nouveau serpulien d’eau saumâtre Mercierella n. g., enigmatica n. sp. Bulletin de la Sociéte Zoologique de France 47: 424–430.

Fauvel P. 1932. Annelida Polychaeta of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Memoirs of the Indian Museum 12: 1–262.

Fauvel P. 1933. Histoire de la Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel, serpulien d’eau saumậtre. Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale 75: 185–193.

Fiege D. & ten Hove H.A. 1999. Redescription of Spirobranchus gaymardi (Quatrefages, 1866) (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Indo-Pacific with remarks on the Spirobranchus giganteus complex. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 126: 355–364.

Fiege D. & Sun R. 1999. Polychaeta from Hainan Island, South China Sea. Part I: Serpulidae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 79 (2): 109–141.

Fofonoff P.W., Ruiz G.M., Steves B. & Carlton J.T. 2003. National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System [online]. Available from [accessed 22 Jul. 2016].

Fornós J.J., Forteza V. & Martínez-Taberner A. 1997. Modern polychaete reefs in Western Mediterranean lagoons: Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel) in the Albufera of Menorca, Balearic Islands. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 128: 175–186.

Fosså S.A. & Nielsen A.J. 1996. Einzellige Organismen, Schwämme, marine Würmer und Weichtiere im Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. In: Korallenriff-Aquarium 5. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.

Gunnerus J.E. 1768. Om nogle Norske Coraller. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabens Selskab Skrifter 4: 38–73.

Haines J.L. & Maurer D. 1980a. Benthic invertebrates associated with a serpulid polychaete assemblage in a temperate estuary. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 65 (5): 643–656.

Haines J.L. & Maurer D. 1980b. Quantitative faunal associates of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides dianthus. Marine Biology 56: 43–47.

Hartman O. 1945. The marine annelids of North Carolina. Duke University Marine Station Bulletin 2: 1–54.

Hartman O. 1948. The polychaetous annelids of Alaska. Pacific Science 2 (1): 3–58.

Hartman O. 1951. The littoral marine annelids of the Gulf of Mexico. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science 2 (1): 7–124.

Hartman O. 1952. Fouling serpulid worms, new to the Gulf of Mexico. Texas Journal of Sciences 1: 63–64.

Hartman O. 1961. Polychaetous annelids from California. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 25: 1–226.

Hartman O. 1969. Atlas of the Sedentariate Polychaetous Annelids from California. Allan Hancock Foundation, Los Angeles.

Hartmann-Schröder G. 1971. Zur Unterscheidung von Neopomatus Pillai und Mercierella Fauvel (Serpulidae, Polychaeta). (Mit neuen Beiträgen zur Kenntnis der Ökologie und der Rohrenform von Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel.) Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 67: 7–27.

Haswell W.A. 1883. On some new Australian tubicolous Annelids. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7: 633–638.

Hoagland K.E. & Turner R.D. 1980. Range extensions of teredinids (shipworms) and polychaetes in the vicinity of a temperate-zone nuclear generating station. Marine Biology 58: 55–64.

Holguín-Quiñones O.E. 1994. Comunidades bentónicas marinas. In: Ortega-Rubio A. & Castellanos-Vera A. (eds) La Isla Socorro, Reserva de la Biosfera Archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México: 225–245. Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, México.

Hove H.A. ten. 1974. Notes on Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) and Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel, 1923, alien serpulid polychaetes introduced into the Netherlands. Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam 4 (5): 45–51.

Hove H.A. ten. 1975. Serpulinae (Polychaeta) from the Caribbean: III. The genus Pseudovermilia. Studies of the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 47: 46–110.

Hove H.A. ten. 1979. Different causes of mass occurrence in serpulids. In: Larwood G. & Rosen B.R. (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms: 281–298. Systematics Association Special Volume 11.

Hove H.A. ten & Ben-Eliahu M.N. 2005. On the identity of Hydroides priscus Pillai 1971 — Taxonomic confusion due to ontogeny in some serpulid genera (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 127–145.

Hove H.A. ten & Hurk P. van den. 1993. A review of Recent and fossil serpulid “reefs”; actuopaleontology and the ‘Upper Malm’ serpulid limestones in NW Germany. Geologie en Mijnbouw 72 (1): 23–67.

Hove H.A. ten & Jansen-Jacobs M.J. 1984. A revision of the genus Crucigera (Polychaeta; Serpulidae); a proposed methodical approach to serpulids, with special reference to variation in Serpula and Hydroides. In: Hutchings P.A. (ed.) Proceedings of the First International Polychaete Conference: 143–180. The Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney.

Hove H.A. ten & Kupriyanova E.K. 2009. Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): the state of affairs. Zootaxa 2036: 1–126.

Hove H.A. ten & San Martín G. 1995. Serpulidae (Polychaeta) procedentes de la I Expedición Cubano-Española a la Isla de la Juventud y Archipiélago de los Canarreos (Cuba). Studies on the Natural History of the Caribbean Region 72: 13–24.

Hove H.A. ten & Weerdenburg J.C.A. 1978. A generic revision of the brackish-water serpulid Ficopomatus Southern 1921 (Polychaeta: Serpulinae), including Mercierella Fauvel 1923, Sphaeropomatus Treadwell 1934, Mercierellopsis Rioja 1945 and Neopomatus Pillai 1960. The Biological Bulletin 154: 96–120.

Hove H.A. ten & Wolf P.S. 1984. Family Serpulidae Johnston, 1865. In: Uebelacker J.M. & Johnson P.G. (eds) Taxonomic Guide to the Polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Final Report to the Minerals Management Service, contract 14–12–001–29091: 55–1 to 55–34. Barry A. Vittor and Associates, Mobile, Alabama. Vol. 7.

Huxley T.A. 1855. On a hermaphrodite and fissiparous species of tubicolous annelid. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, New Series 1 (1): 113–129.

ICZN (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature). 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

Imajima M. 1976a. Serpulid polychaetes from Tanega-shima, Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 9: 123–143.

Imajima M. 1976b. Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Japan. I. The genus Hydroides. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Series A (Zoology) 2 (4): 229–247.

Imajima M. 1977. Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected around Chichi-jima (Ogasawara Islands). Memoirs of the National Science Museum 10: 89–111.

Imajima M. 1978. Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected around Nii-jima and Ō-shima, Izu Islands. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 11: 49–72.

Imajima M. 1979. Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected around Cape Shionomisaki, Kii Peninsula. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 12: 159–183.

Imajima M. 1982. Serpulinae (polychaetous annelids) from the Palau and Yap Islands, Micronesia. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 23: 37–55.

Imajima M. & ten Hove H.A. 1984. Serpulinae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Truk Islands, Ponape and Majuro Atoll, with some other new Indo-Pacific records. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 27: 35–66.

Imajima M. & ten Hove H.A. 1986. Serpulinae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Nauru, the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati) and the Solomon Islands. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 32: 1–16.

Iroso I. 1921. Revisione dei serpulidi e sabellidi del Golfo di Napoli. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 3: 47–91.

Ishaq S. & Mustaquim J. 1996. Polychaetous annelids (order Sabellida) from the Karachi coast, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 5 (2): 161–197.

Johnson H.P. 1901. The Polychaeta of the Puget Sound Region. Proceedings of the Boston Society for Natural History 29: 381–437.

Kerstitch A. & Bertsch H. 2007. Sea of Cortez Marine Invertebrates. A Guide for the Pacific Coast, México to Perú. Second edition, Sea Challengers, Monterey, California.

Knight-Jones P., Knight-Jones E.W. & Dales R.P. 1979. Spirorbidae (Polychaeta Sedentaria) from Alaska to Panama. Journal of Zoology 189: 419–458.

Kudenov J.D. 1975. Sedentary polychaetes from the Gulf of California. Journal of Natural History 9: 205–231.

Kudenov J.D. 1980. Annelida: Polychaeta (Bristleworms). In: Brusca R.C. (ed.) Common Intertidal Invertebrates of the Gulf of California: 77–123. Second edition, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Kupriyanova E.K. 1999. The taxonomic status of Serpula cf. columbiana Johnson, 1901 from the American and Asian coasts of the North Pacific Ocean (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Ophelia 50 (1): 21–34.

Kupriyanova E.K., Nishi E., ten Hove H.A. & Rzhavsky A.V. 2001. Life-history patterns in serpulimorph polychaetes: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. In: Gibson R.N., Barnes M. & Atkinson R.J.A. (eds) Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 39: 1–101. Taylor and Francis, London, 39.

Kupriyanova E.K., Macdonald T.A. & Rouse G.W. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships within Serpulidae (Sabellida, Annelida) inferred from molecular and morphological data. Zoologica Scripta 35: 421–439.

Kupriyanova E.K., ten Hove H.A. & Nishi E. 2012. A taxonomic revision of Pseudochitinopoma Zibrowius, 1969 (Annelida, Serpulidae) with description of two new species. Zootaxa 3507: 57–78.

Kupriyanova E.K., Sun Y., ten Hove H.A., Wong E. & Rouse G. 2015. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Zootaxa 4019 (1): 275–353.

Lakshmana Rao M.V. 1969. Fouling serpulids from some Indian harbours. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India 15 (2): 1–20.

Laverde-Castillo J.J.A. 1988. Notas sobre algunos serpúlidos (Annelida, Polychaeta) de Bahía Málaga, Pacífico colombiano. Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Punta de Betín 18: 83–93.

León-González J.A. de 1990. Dos serpúlidos nuevos para el Pacífico mexicano y duplicidad opercular en Hydroides cruciger (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Revista de Biología Tropical 38 (2A): 335–338.

Lewis J.A., Watson C. & ten Hove H.A. 2006. Establishment of the Caribbean serpulid tubeworm Hydroides sanctaecrucis Krøyer [in] Mörch, 1863, in northern Australia. Biological Invasions 8: 665–671.

Link H., Nishi E., Tanaka K., Bastida-Zavala R., Kupriyanova E.K. & Yamakita T. 2009. Hydroides dianthus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae), an alien species introduced into Tokyo Bay, Japan. Biodiversity Records 6430: 1–6.

Linnaeus C. 1767. Systema Naturae. 12th ed., 1, Part 2. L. Salvius, Holmiae [Stockholm], 533–1327.

Liñero-Arana I. & Díaz-Díaz O. 2012. Presencia del poliqueto exótico Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) en Venezuela: descripción y comentarios sobre su distribución. Interciencia 37: 234–237.

Long E.R. 1974. Marine fouling studies off Oahu, Hawaii. The Veliger 17 (1): 23–36.

McIntosh W.C. 1885. Report on the Annelida Polychaeta collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the Years 1873–1876. Challenger Reports, Zoology 12. London.

Monro C.C.A. 1933. The Polychaeta Sedentaria collected by Dr. C. Crossland at Colón, in the Panama region, and the Galapagos Islands during the expedition of the S.Y. “St. George”. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1933: 1039–1092.

Montagu G. 1803. Testacea Britannica or Natural History of British Shells, Marine, Land, and Fresh-water, Including the most Minute: Systematically Arranged and Embellished with Figures. J. White, London, two volumes.

Moore J.P. 1923. The polychaetous annelids dredged by the U.S.S. Albatros off the coast of southern California in 1904. Spionidae to Sabellariidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 75: 179–259.

Mörch O.A.L. 1863. Revisio critica Serpulidarum. Et bidrag til rørormenes naturhistorie. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, Series 3, 1: 347–470.

Nedved B.T. & Hadfield M.G. 2008. Hydroides elegans (Annelida: Polychaeta): A model for biofouling research. In: Flemming H.-C., Murthy P.S., Venkatesan R. & Cooksey K.E. (eds) Marine and Industrial Biofouling: 203–217. Series in Biofuling 4, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

Nelson-Smith A. 1967. Catalogue of Main Marine Fouling Organisms (found on Ships coming into European Waters). Vol. 3. Serpulids. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.

Nishi E. 1993. Ecological study of a sessile polychaete Pomatoleios kraussii (Baird) (Serpulidae, Sedentaria) at Haneji Inlet, Okinawa, with fouling species composition there. The Biological Magazine, Okinawa 31: 29–40.

Nishi E. 1995a. Occurrence of the serpulid polychaetes, Hydroides elegans (Haswell) and H. fusicola Mörch on the carapace of the crustaceans. Nankiseibutu: The Nanki Biological Society 37 (2): 101–102.

Nishi E. 1995b. Occurrence of Vermiliopsis infundibulum and Pomatostegus stellatus (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) on the living coral at Okinawa, Southwest Japan. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 54: 28–32.

Nishi E. 1996. Serpulid polychaetes associated with living and dead corals at Okinawa Island, Southwest Japan. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 37 (3/6): 305–318.

Nogueira J.M.M. & ten Hove H.A. 2000. On a new species of Salmacina Claparède, 1870 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae), from São Paulo state, Brazil. Beaufortia 50: 151–161.

Nonato E.F. & Luna J.A.C. 1970. Anelídeos poliquetas do Nordeste do Brasil. I – Poliquetas bentónicos da costa de Alagoas e Sergipe. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico 19: 57–130.

Oldale R.N., Valentine P.C., Cronin T.M., Spiker, E.C., Blackwelder B.W., Belknap D.F., Wehmiller J.F. & Szabo B.J. 1982. Stratigraphy, structure, absolute age, and paleontology of the upper Pleistocene deposits at Sankaty Head, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Geology 10: 246–252.<246:SSAAAP>2.0.CO;2

Otani M. & Yamanishi R. 2010. Distribution of the alien species Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in Osaka Bay, Japan, with comments on the factors limiting its invasion. Plankton and Benthos Research 5 (2): 62–68.

Perkins T.H. 1998. Checklist of shallow-water marine polychaetous Annelida of Florida. In: Camp D.K., Lyons W.G. & Perkins T.H. (eds) Checklist of Selected Shallow-water Marine Invertebrates of Florida: 79–122. Florida Marine Research Institute, Technical Report 3.

Pernet B., Barton M., Fitzhugh K., Harris L.H., Lizárraga D., Ohl R. & Whitcraft C.R. 2016. Establishment of the reef-forming tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923) (Annelida: Serpulidae) in southern California. BioInvasions Records 5 (1): 13–19.

Philippi A. 1844. Einige Bemerkungen über die Gattung Serpula, nebst Aufzählung der von mir im Mittelmeer mit dem Thier beobachteten Arten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 10 (1): 186–198.

Pillai T.G. 1960. Some marine and brackish-water serpulid Polychaeta from Ceylon, including new genera and species. Journal of Science, Biological Sciences 3: 1–40.

Pillai T.G. 2009. Description of new serpulid polychaetes from the Kimberleys of Australia and discussion of Australian and Indo-West Pacific species of Spirobranchus and superficially similar taxa. Records of the Australian Museum 61 (2): 93–199.

Pixell H.L.M. 1912. Polychaeta from the Pacific coast of North America. – Part I. Serpulidae, with a revised table of classification of the genus Spirorbis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1912: 784–805.

Pixell H.L.M. 1913. Polychaeta of the Indian Ocean, together with some species from the Cape Verde Islands. The Serpulidae, with a classification of the genera Hydroides and Eupomatus. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Series 2, 16: 69–92.

Quirós-Rodríguez J., Dueñas Ramírez P. & Hernando Campos N. 2013. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) asociados a algas rojas intermareales de Córdoba, Caribe Colombiano. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 48 (1): 87–98.

Read G. 2016. WoRMS note, details on Hydroides floridanus. In: Read G. & Fauchald K. (eds) World Polychaeta database. Accessed through World Register of Marine Species, available from: [accessed 12 Jul. 2016].

Read G.B., ten Hove H.A., Sun Y. & Kupriyanova E.K. 2017. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae) is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names. ZooKeys 642: 1–52.

Renaud J.C. 1956. A report on some polychaetous annelids from the Miami-Bimini area. American Museum Novitates 1812: 1–40.

Richards H.G. 1933. Marine fossils from New Jersey indicating a mild interglacial stage. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 72 (3): 181–214.

Rioja E. 1931. Estudio de los poliquetos de la Península Ibérica. Memorias de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid, Serie de Ciencias Naturales 2: 1–471.

Rioja E. 1941a. Estudios Anelidológicos II. Observaciones acerca de varias especies del género Hydroides Gunnerus (sensu Fauvel) de las costas mexicanas del Pacífico. Anales del Instituto de Biología 12: 161–175.

Rioja E. 1941b. Estudios Anelidológicos III. Datos para el conocimiento de la fauna de poliquetos de las costas mexicanas del Pacífico. Anales del Instituto de Biología 12: 669–746.

Rioja E. 1942. Estudios Anelidológicos IV. Observaciones sobre especies de serpúlidos de las costas del Pacífico de México, con descripción de una especie nueva del género Hydroides. Anales del Instituto de Biología 13: 125–135.

Rioja E. 1943. Estudios Anelidológicos IX: La presencia de la Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel, en las costas argentinas. Anales del Instituto de Biología 14: 547–551.

Rioja E. 1945. Estudios Anelidológicos XIII: Un nuevo género de serpúlido de agua salobre de México. Anales del Instituto de Biología 16: 411–417.

Rioja E. 1946. Estudios Anelidológicos XIV: Observaciones sobre algunos poliquetos de las costas del Golfo de México. Anales del Instituto de Biología 17: 193–203.

Rioja E. 1947a. Estudios Anelidológicos XVII: Contribución al conocimiento de los anélidos poliquetos de Baja California y Mar de Cortés. Anales del Instituto de Biología 18 (1): 197–224.

Rioja E. 1947b. Estudios Anelidológicos XVIII: Observaciones y datos sobre algunos anélidos poliquetos del Golfo de California y costas de Baja California. Anales del Instituto de Biología 18: 517–526.

Rioja E. 1958. Estudios Anelidológicos XXII: Datos para el conocimiento de la fauna anélidos poliquetos de las costas orientales de México. Anales del Instituto de Biología 29: 219–301.

Rioja E. 1961. Estudios Anelidológicos XXIV: Adiciones a la fauna de anélidos poliquetos de las costas orientales de México. Anales del Instituto de Biología 31: 289–316.

Rioja E. 1963. Estudios Anelidológicos XXVI: Algunos anélidos poliquetos de las costas del Pacífico de México. Anales del Instituto de Biología 33 (1–2): 131–229.

Roberge A.G. 1968. Odostomia dianthophila (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae) from Buzzard’s Bay, Mass., a northern range extension. Nautilus 81 (4): 145.

Robertson R. & Mau-Lastovicka T. 1979. The ectoparasitism of Boonea and Fargoa (Gastropoda: Pyramidellidae). The Biological Bulletin 157: 320–335.

Rodríguez-Valencia J.A. 2004. Respuesta de los poliquetos bentónicos a la variabilidad ambiental y condiciones El Niño en Bahía Petacalco (Guerrero, México). Ciencias Marinas 30 (4): 515–526.

Ruiz G.M. & Hewitt C.L. 2009. Latitudinal patterns of biological invasions in marine ecosystems: A polar perspective. In: Krupnik I., Lang M.A. & Miller S.E. (eds) Smithsonian at the Poles Contributions to International Polar Year Science: 347–358. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, D.C.

Ruiz G.M., Fofonoff P., Carlton J.T., Wonham M.J. & Hines A.H. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: Apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 481–531.

Ruiz G.M., McCann L. & Whitman Miller A. 2001. Marine invasion research at SERC. SERC Newsletter 8: 6–9.

Ruiz G.M., Huber T., Fofonoff P., Larson K., Collinetti E., Hitchcock N.G., McCann L., Lion K. & Steves B. 2004. Marine Invasive Species: Patterns of Invasion and a National Database. U.S. Department of Defense Report.

Ruiz G.M., Huber T., Larson K., McCann L., Steves B., Fofonoff P.W. & Hines A.H. 2006. Biological Invasions in Alaska’s Coastal Marine Ecosystems: Establishing a Baseline. Final Report. Prince William Sound Regional Citizens’ Advisory Council and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Ruiz G.M., Torchin M.E. & Grant K. 2009. Using the Panama Canal to test predictions about tropical marine invasions. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38: 291–300.

Rullier F. 1955. Station nouvelle de Mercierella enigmatica sur la Côte d’Ivoire. Vie et Milieu 6: 288–289.

Rullier F. 1974. Quelques annélides polychètes de Cuba recueillies dans des éponges. Travaux du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle Grigore Antipa 14: 9–77.

Rullier F. & Amoreux L. 1979. Campagne de la Calypso au large des côtes Atlantiques de l’Amerique du Sud (1961–1962). I. Annélides Polychètes. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique 55: 146–218.

Salazar-Vallejo S.I. 1996. Lista de especies y bibliografía de poliquetos (Polychaeta) del Gran Caribe. Anales del Instituto de Biología 67: 11–50.

Salgado-Barragán J., Méndez N. & Toledano-Granados A. 2004. Ficopomatus miamiensis (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) and Styela canopus (Ascidiacea: Styelidae), non-native species in Urías estuary, SE Gulf of California, Mexico. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 45: 167–173.

Schmarda L.K. 1861. Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde 1853 bis 1857. Erster Band (zweite Hälfte) Turbellarian, Rotatorien und Anneliden. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Schwan I.D.S., Brasil A.C.D.S., Neves D. & Dias G.M. 2015. The invasive worm Hydroides elegans (Polychaeta – Serpulidae) in southeastern Brazil and its potential to dominate hard substrata. Marine Biology Research 12 (1): 96–103.

Schwindt E., Bortolus A. & Iribarne O.O. 2001. Invasion of a reef-builder polychaete: direct and indirect impacts on the native benthic community structure. Biological Invasions 3: 137–149.

Schwindt E., Iribarne O.O. & Isla F.I. 2004. Physical effects of an invading reef-building polychaete on an Argentinean estuarine environment. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 59: 109–120.

Shepherd W.M. 1972. Reporte hecho sobre el estudio de gusanos Polychaete (sic) asociados con el criadero de ostras de perla (Pinctada mazatlanica) en Bahía Falsa, La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Reporte del permiso 15011, otorgado para coleccionar gusanos Polychaete en el Golfo de California. Unpublished report.

Steinbeck J. & Ricketts E.F. 1941. Phylum Annelida. Class Polychaeta. In: Sea of Cortez, a Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research: 348–370. Paul P. Appel, California.

Straughan D. 1967. Marine Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of eastern Queensland and New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology 15: 201–261.

Straughan D. 1968. Ecological aspects of serpulid fouling. Australian Natural History 16: 59–64.

Straughan D. 1969. Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Oahu, Hawaii. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 68 (4): 229–240.

Styan C.A., McCluskey C.F., Sun Y. & Kupriyanova E.K. 2017. Cryptic sympatric species across the Australian range of the global estuarine invader Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923) (Serpulidae, Annelida). Aquatic Invasions 12 (1): 53–65.

Sun R. & Yang D. 2000. Study on Hydroides (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from waters off China. I. Studia Marina Sinica 42: 116–135.

Sun Y., ten Hove H.A. & Qiu J.W. 2012. Serpulid polychaetes from Hong Kong. Zootaxa 3424: 1–42.

Sun Y., Wong E., ten Hove H.A., Hutchings P.A., Williamson J.E. & Kupriyanova E.K. 2015. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia. Zootaxa 4009 (1): 1–99.

Sun Y., Wong E., Keppel E., Williamson J.E. & Kupriyanova E.K. 2016a. A global invader or a complex of regionally distributed species? Clarifying the status of an invasive calcareous tubeworm Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) using barcoding. International Polychaete Conference. Cardiff, Wales, UK, August 1–5, 2016. Poster.

Sun Y., Wong E., Tovar-Hernández M.A., Williamson J.E. & Kupriyanova E.K. 2016b. Is Hydroides brachyacantha (Serpulidae: Annelida) a widespread species? Invertebrate Systematics 30 (1): 41–59.

Sun Y., Wong E., Keppel E., Williamson J. & Kupriyanova E. 2017. A global invader or a complex of regionally distributed species? Clarifying the status of an invasive calcareous tubeworm Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) using barcoding. Marine Biology 164: 28.

Toonen R.J. & Pawlik J.R. 2001. Settlement of the gregarious tube worm Hydroides dianthus (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). I. Gregarious and nongregarious settlement. Marine Ecology Progress Series 224: 103–114.

Tovar-Hernández M.A., Méndez N. & Villalobos-Guerrero T.F. 2009. Fouling polychaete worms from the southern Gulf of California: Sabellidae and Serpulidae. Systematics and Biodiversity 7 (3): 319–336.

Tovar-Hernández M.A., Villalobos-Guerrero T.F., Yáñez-Rivera B., Aguilar-Camacho J.M. & Ramírez-Santana I.D. 2012. Guía de Invertebrados acuáticos exóticos en Sinaloa. Geomare, A.C., USFWS, INE-SEMARNAT, Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México.

Tovar-Hernández M.A., Yáñez-Rivera B., Villalobos-Guerrero T.F., Aguilar-Camacho J.M. & Ramírez-Santana I.D. 2014. Invertebrados marinos exóticos en el Golfo de California. In: Low Pfeng A.M, Quijón P.A. & Peters Recagno E.M. (eds) Especies invasoras acuáticas: Casos de Estudio en Ecosistemas de México: 15–32. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático, México DF, Mexico, and University of Prince Edward Island, Charlotteville, Canada.

Treadwell A.L. 1891. Preliminary note on the anatomy and histology of Serpula dianthus (Verrill). Zoologischer Anzeiger 14: 276–280.

Treadwell A.L. 1902. The polychaetous annelids of Porto Rico. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 2: 181–210.

Treadwell A.L. 1914. Polychaetous annelids of the Pacific coast in the collections of the Zoological Museum of the University of California. University of California Publications in Zoology 13 (8): 175–234.

Treadwell A.L. 1928. Polychaetous annelids from the Arcturus Oceanographic Expedition. Zoologica 8 (8): 449–485.

Treadwell A.L. 1931. Three new species of polychaetous annelids in the collections of the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 80 (2): 1–5.

Treadwell A.L. 1934. Sphaeropomatus miamiensis, a new genus and species of serpulid polychaete. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24 (8): 338–341.

Treadwell A.L. 1939. Polychaetous annelids of Porto Rico and vicinity. Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 16 (2): 151–319.

Treadwell A.L. 1943. New species of polychaetous annelids from Hawaii. American Museum Novitates 1233: 1–4.

Verrill A.E. 1873. Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound and the Adjacent Waters, with an Account of the Physical Characters of the Region. Report of the United States Commission for Fisheries 1871–72, pp. 295–778.

Webster H.E. 1884. Annelida from Bermuda, collected by G. Brown Goode. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 25: 305–327.

Webster H.E. & Benedict J.E. 1884. Annelida Chaetopoda from Provincetown and Wellfleet, Massachusetts. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1881, Washington DC.

Weisbord N.E. 1962. Late Cenozoic gastropods from northern Venezuela. Bulletins of American Paleontology 42 (193): 1–672.

Weisbord N.E. 1964. Late Cenozoic scaphopods and serpulid polychaetes from North Venezuela. Bulletins of American Paleontology 47 (214): 111–204.

Wells H.W. & Gray I.E. 1964. Polychaetous annelids of the Cape Hatteras area. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 80 (2): 70–78.

Wells H.W. & Wells M.J. 1961. Three species of Odostomia from North Carolina, with description of new species. Nautilus 74 (4): 149–157.

Wells H.W. & Wells M.J. 1969. New host and distribution records of Odostontia dianthophila. Nautilus 82: 109–110.

Willette D.A., Iñiguez A.R., Kupriyanova E.K., Starger C.J., Varman T., Toha A.H., Maralit B.A. & Barber P.H. 2015. Christmas tree worms of Indo-Pacific coral reefs: untangling the Spirobranchus corniculatus (Grube, 1862) complex. Coral Reefs 34: 899–904.

Wilson J.H. 1905. The Pleistocene formations of Sankaty Head, Nantucket. The Journal of Geology 13 (8): 713–734.

Wu B.L. & Chen M. 1981. Two new species of Hydroides (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from South China Sea. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 12 (4): 354–357.

Zibrowius H. 1969a. Review of some little known genera of Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 42: 1–22.

Zibrowius H. 1969b. Quelques nouvelles récoltes de Serpulidae (Polychaeta Sedentaria) dans le Golfe de Gabès et en Tripolitaine. Description de Vermiliopsis pomatostegoides n. sp. Bulletin de la Station océanographique de Salammbô 1 (3): 123–136.

Zibrowius H. 1970. Contribution à l’étude des Serpulidae (Polychaeta Sedentaria) du Brésil. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico do São Paulo 19: 1–32.

Zibrowius H. 1971. Les espèces Méditerranéennes du genre Hydroides (Polychaeta Serpulidae): remarques sur le prétendu polymorphisme de Hydroides uncinata. Tethys 2: 691–746.

Zibrowius H. 1973. Remarques sur trois espèces de Serpulidae acclimatées en Méditerranée: Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873), Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863, et Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883). Rapports et Procès-verbaux des Réunions de la Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 21: 683–686.

Zibrowius H. 1979. Serpulidae (Annelida Polychaeta) de l’Océan Indien arrivés sur des coques a Toulon (France, Méditerranée). Rapports et Procès-verbaux des Réunions de la Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 25–26: 133–134.

Zibrowius H. 1992. Ongoing modification of the Mediterranean marine fauna and flora by the establishment of exotic species. Mésogée 51: 83–107.

Zibrowius H. 1994. Introduced invertebrates: examples of success and nuisance in the European Atlantic and in the Mediterranean. In: Boudouresque C.F., Briand F. & Nolan C. (eds) Introduced Species in European Coastal Waters: 44–49. Ecosystems Research Report 8, European Commission.

How to Cite
Bastida-Zavala, J. R., McCann, L. D., Keppel, E., & Ruiz, G. M. (2017). The fouling serpulids (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from United States coastal waters: an overview. European Journal of Taxonomy, (344).