A revision of the spider genus Anemesia (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae)

Sergei Zonstein


The Central Asian spider genus Anemesia Pocock, 1895 is rediagnosed and revised. The genus was found to contain 14 species: ♂♀ A. andreevae sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan); ♂♀ A. birulai (Spassky, 1937) (Turkmenistan); ♂♀ A. castanea sp. nov.; ♂♀ A. incana Zonstein, 2001, ♂♀ A. infumata sp. nov.; ♂♀ A. infuscata sp. nov.; ♂♀ A. karatauvi (Andreeva, 1968) (all Tajikistan); ♂ A. koponeni Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran); ♂♀ A. oxiana sp. nov.; ♂♀ A. pallida sp. nov.; ♂ A. parvula sp. nov. (all Tajikistan); ♂♀ A. pococki sp. nov. (Turkmenistan); ♂♀ A. sogdiana sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan) and ♂♀ A. tubifex (Pocock, 1889), the type species (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan). Nine species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of A. tubifex and females of A. birulai, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are provided.


taxonomy; burrowing spiders; Mygalomorphae; new species; ecology; Central Asia

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.485


Abraham H.C. 1924. Some mygalomorph spiders from the Malay Peninsula. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1924: 1091–1124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1924.tb03332.x

Andreeva E.M. 1968. Materialy po faune paukov Tajikistana [Materials to the spider fauna of Tajikistan]. III. Mygalomorphae. Doklady AN Tadzhikskoi SSR 11 (7): 68–71.

Andreeva E.M. 1976. Pauki Tajikistana [Spiders of Tajikistan]. Donish, Dushanbe.

Blandin P. & Célérier M.-L. 1977. Observations sur les mygales terricoles récoltées à la Station d’écologie tropicale de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire). Revue Arachnologique 1: 75–83.

Bond J.E. 2004. Systematics of the Californian euctenizine spider genus Apomastus (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Cyrtaucheniidae): the relationship between molecular and morphological taxonomy. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 361–376.

Bond J.E. & Godwin R.L. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Eucteniza Ausserer (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 356: 31–67. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.356.6227

Bond J.E. & Hedin M. 2006. A total evidence assessment of the phylogeny of North American euctenizine trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae) using Bayesian inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 70–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.04.026

Bond J.E. & Opel B.D. 2002. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera of south-western North American Euctenizinae trapdoor spiders and their relatives (Araneae: Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 487–534. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1096-3642.2002.00035.x

Bond J.E., Hamilton C.A., Garrison N.L. & Ray C.H. 2012a. Phylogenetic reconsideration of Myrmekiaphila systematics with a description of the trapdoor spider species Myrmekiaphila tigris (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Euctenizinae) from Auburn, Alabama. ZooKeys 190: 94­–109. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.190.3011

Bond J.E., Hendrixson B.E., Hamilton C.A. & Hedin M. 2012b. A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) based on three nuclear genes and morphology. PLoS ONE 7 (6): e38753. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038753

Bonnet P. 1955. Bibliographia araneorum Vol. 2 (1). Douladoure, Toulouse.

Brignoli P.M. 1972. Une nouvelle Brachythele de l’Iran (Arachnida, Araneae, Dipluridae). Revue Suisse de Zoologies 79: 409–413.

Brignoli P.M. 1983. A Catalogue of Araneae Described between 1940 and 1981. Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Buchli H.H.R. 1966. Notes sur la mygale terricole Amblyocarenum simile (Ausserer 1871) (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 47: 11–22.

Charitonov D.E. 1948. Pauki – Araneina [Spiders – Araneina]. In: Pavlovsky E.N. (ed.) Zhivotnyi mir SSSR [Animal World of the USSR], vol. 2: 297–304. Akademiya Nauk USSR, Moscow-Leningrad.

Charitonov D.E. 1969. Materialy po faune paukov SSSR [Materials to the Spider Fauna of the USSR]. Uchenye Zapiski Permskogo Universiteta 179: 59–133.

Decae A.E. 1996. Variation in burrow morphology of Mediterranean trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae). Revie suisse de Zoologie, Volume hors série 1: 135­–140.

Decae A.E. 2005. Trapdoor spiders of the genus Nemesia Audouin, 1826 on Majorca and Ibiza: taxonomy, distribution and behaviour (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 13: 145–168.

Decae A.E. 2012. Geography-related sub-generic diversity within the Mediterranean trapdoor spider genus Nemesia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae). Arachnologische Mitteilungen 43: 24–28. https://doi.org/10.5431/aramit4304

Decae A.E. & Bosmans R. 2014. Synonymy of the trapdoor spider genera Cyrtauchenius Thorell, 1869 and Amblyocarenum Simon, 1892 reconsidered (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae). Arachnology 16 (5): 182–192.

Decae A. & Cardoso P. 2006. Iberesia, a new genus of trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Nemesiidae) from Portugal & Spain. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 12: 3–11.

Decae A., Colombo M. & Manunza B. 2014. Species diversity in the supposedly monotypic genus Amblyocarenum Simon, 1892, with the description of a new species from Sardinia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae). Arachnology 16 (6): 228–240.

Decae A., Pantini P. & Isaia M. 2015. A new species-complex within the trapdoor spider genus Nemesia Audouin 1826 distributed in northern and central Italy, with descriptions of three new species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae). Zootaxa 4059 (3): 525–540. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4059.3.5

Denis J. 1958. Araignées (Araneidea) de l’Afghanistan. I. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 120: 81–120.

Dippenaar-Schoeman A.S. 2002. Baboon and Trapdoor Spiders of Southern Africa: an Identification Manual. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook 13, Pretoria.

Dippenaar-Schoeman A.S. 2014. Field Guide to Spiders of South Africa. LAPA Publishers Ltd, Pretoria.

Ferretti N. & Pompozzi G. 2016. Description of the male of Stenoterommata uruguai (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Nemesiidae) from Northeastern Argentina, with notes on its natural history. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 527–530.

Fet V.Y. 1984. Novyi vid paukov iz Turkmenskoi SSR: Brachythele kopetdagensis sp. nov. (Aranei, Dipluridae) [A new species of spider from the Turkmen SSR: Brachythele kopetdagensis sp. nov. (Aranei, Dipluridae)]. In: Utochkin A.S. (ed.) Fauna i ekologiya paukoobraznyh [Fauna and Ecology of Arachnids]: 37–41. University of Perm, Perm.

Garrison N.L., Rodriguez J., Agnarsson I., Coddington J.A., Griswold C.E., Hamilton C.A., Hedin M., Kocot K.M., Ledford J.M. & Bond J.E. 2016. Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ, 4: e1719. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1719

Goloboff P.A. 1993. A reanalysis of the mygalomorph spider families (Araneae). American Museum Novitates 3056: 1–32.

Goloboff P.A. 1995. A revision of the South American spiders of the family Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). Part I: species from Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 224: 1–189.

Hedin M. & Bond J.E. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): conflict and agreement with the current system of classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 454–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.017

Ivanov A.V. 1965. Pauki, ih stroenie,obraz zhizni i znachenie dlya cheloveka [Spiders, their Structure, Mode of Life and Significance for the Human Being]. Academy of Sciences of USSR, Leningrad.

Jocqué R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman A.S. 2006. Spider Families of the World. Musée Royal de l’Afrique Central, Tervuren.

Kroneberg A.I. 1875. Araneae. In: Fedchenko A.P. (ed.) Puteshestvie v Turkestan. Reisen in Turkestan. Zoologischer Theil. Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Freunde der Naturwissenschaften zu Moskau 19 (3): 1–58. [In Russian.]

Kryzhanovsky O.L. 1965. Sostav i proiskhozhdenie nazemnoi fauny Srednei Azii [The Composition and Origin of the Terrestrial Fauna of Middle Asia]. Nauka, Moscow–Leningrad.

Kryzhanovsky O.L. 2002. Sostav i rasprostranenie entomofaun zemnogo shara [Composition and Distribution of the Insect Faunas of the World]. KMK Press, Moscow.

Kuznetsov G.T. & Fet V.Y. 1986. Materialy po faune paukov Kopetdaga [Materials on the spider fauna of Kopetdag Mts]. In: Shcherbak N.N (ed.) Priroda Tsentral’nogo Kopetdaga [The nature of the Central Kopetdag]: 48–67. Ylym, Ashkhabad. [In Russian.]

Lazarov S.P. 2005. A new spider species from Bulgaria, Brachythele langourovi sp. n. (Araneae, Nemesiidae). Revue suisse de Zoologie 112: 189­–193. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.80294

Leavitt D.H., Starrett J., Westphal M.F. & Hedin M. 2015. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 91: 56–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.05.016

Logunov D.V. 2010. Taxonomic notes on a collection of jumping spiders from Iran (Araneae, Salticidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 15: 85–90

Logunov D.V. & Zamanpoore M. 2005. Salticidae (Araneae) of Afghanistan: an annotated check-list, with descriptions of four new species and three new synonymies. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 13: 217–232.

Marusik Y.M., Zamani A. & Mirshamsi O. 2014. Three new species of mygalomorph and filistatid spiders from Iran (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae and Filistatidae). ZooKeys 463: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.463.8692

Mikhailov K.G. 1996. A checklist of the spiders of Russia and other territories of the former USSR. Arthropoda Selecta 5 (1–2): 75–137.

Mikhailov K.G. 1997. Catalogue of the Spiders of the Territories of the Former Soviet Union (Arachnida, Aranei). ZMMU Publications, Moscow.

Mikhailov K.G. & Fet V. 1994. Fauna and zoogeography of spiders (Aranei) of Turkmenistan. In: Fet V. & Atamuradov K.I. (eds) Biogeography and Ecology of Turkmenistan: 499–524. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht / Boston / London.

Mirshamsi O. 2005. Faunistic study of spiders in Khorasan Province, Iran (Arachnida: Araneae). Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 1 (1): 59–66.

Murphy J.A. & Roberts M.J. 2015. Spider Families of the World and their Spinnerets. Volumes 1 and 2. British Arachnological Society, York.

Nikolaev V.G. 2002. Afghan-Tajik Depression: architecture of sedimentary cover and evolution. Russian Journal of Earth Sciences 4 (6): 399–421.

Ortega D.R.M., Nagahama R.H., Motta P.C. & Bertani R. 2013. Three new species of Fufius Simon, 1888 (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae) from Brazil with the redescription of Fufius funebris Vellard, 1924 and description of the female of Fufius lucasae Guadanucci & Indicatti, 2004. ZooKeys 352: 93–116. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.352.6189

Ovcharenko V.I. & Fet V.Y. 1980. Fauna i ekologiya paukov (Aranei) Badhyza (Turkmenskaya SSR) [Fauna and Ecology of Spiders (Aranei) of Badhyz (Turkmenian SSR)]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 59 (2): 442–447.

Pocock R.I. 1889. The zoology of Afghan delimitation commission. Arachnida, Myriapoda and Crustacea. Transactions of Linnean Society of London 5 (3): 110–121.

Pocock R.I. 1895. Descriptions of new genera and new species of trapdoor spiders belonging to the group Trionychi. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 6 (16): 187–197.

Raven R.J. 1981. A review of the Australian genera of the mygalomorph spider subfamily Diplurinae (Dipluridae: Chelicerata). Australian Journal of Zoology 29: 321–363.

Raven R.J. 1983. Notes on some mygalomorph spiders in the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale (Dipluridae, Hexathelidae, Ctenizidae: Araneae). Revue zoologique africaine 97: 549–562.

Raven R.J. 1985. The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and syste­matics. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 182 (1): 1–180.

Raven R.J. 1987. A new mygalomorph spider genus from Mexico (Nemesiinae, Nemesiidae, Arachnida). Journal of Arachnology 14: 357–362.

Raven R.J. & Schwendinger P.J. 1995. Three new mygalomorph spider genera from Thailand and China (Araneae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 38: 623–641.

Reimoser E. 1919. Katalog der echten Spinnen (Araneae) des paläarktischen Gebietes. Abhandlungen der Zoologische-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 10 (2): 1–280.

Roewer C.F. 1942. Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940. Volume 1. Natura, Bremen.

Rudloff J.-P. 1996. Primer reporte de una especie de la familia Cyrtauchenidae [sic] de Cuba inclusive una descripción de una nueva especie del genéro Bolostromus (Ausserer, 1875) (Cyrtauchenidae [sic]: Mygalomorphae: Araneida). Garciana 24: 17–19.

Schiapelli R.D. & Gerschman B.S. 1945. Parte descriptiva. In: Vellard J., Schiapelli R.D. & Gerschman B.S. (eds) Arañas sudamericanas colleccionadas por el Doctor J. Vellard. I. Theraphosidae nuevas o poco conocidas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 3: 165–213.

Schwendinger P.J. 2009. A taxonomic revision of the genus Phyxioschema (Araneae, Dipluridae), I: species from Thailand. Zootaxa 2126: 1–40.

Schwendinger P.J. & Zonstein S.L. 2011. A taxonomic revision of the genus Phyxioschema (Araneae, Dipluridae), II: species from central Asia. Zootaxa 2815: 28–48.

Siliwal M., Molur S. & Raven R. 2015. New genus with two new species of the family Nemesiidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 8: 43–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2015.01.005

Simon E. 1889. Descriptions d‘espèces africaines nouvelles de la famille des Aviculariidae. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux 42: 405–415.

Simon E. 1892. Histoire naturelle des araignées. Volume 1 (1). Roret, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51973

Simon E. 1903. Histoire naturelle des araignées. Volume 2 (4). Roret, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51973

Smith C.P. 1908. A preliminary study of the Araneae Theraphosidae of California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 1: 207–236.

Spassky S.A. 1937. Araneae palaearcticae novae. I. Mygalomorphae. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstage von Professor Dr. Embrik Strand 3: 361–368.

Spassky S.A. 1952. Pauki Turanskoi zoogeografichesloi provintzii [Spiders of the Turan zoogeographical province]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 32: 192–205.

Spassky S.A. & Minenkova K. 1940. Novye dannye po paukam gryppy Mygalomorphae v SSSR i nekotorye vyvody iz ih geograficheskogo rasprostraneniya [New data on spiders of the group Mygalomorphae in the USSR and some conclusions from their geographical distribution]. Trudy Rostovskogo Biologicheskogo Obshchestva 4: 138–141.

Thaler K. & Knoflach B. 2001. Open burrows in a nemesiid spider Brachythele sp. from Greece. British Arachnological Society Newsletter 91: 5­–6.

Valdez-Mondragón A. & Cortez-Roldán M.R. 2016. On the trapdoor spiders of Mexico: description of the first new species of the spider genus Aptostichus from Mexico and the description of the female of Eucteniza zapatista (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 641: 81–102. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.641.10521

Vellard J. 1945. Observaciones biológicas. In: Vellard J., Schiapelli R.D. & Gerschman B.S. (eds) Arañas sudamericanas coleccionadas por el Doctor J. Vellard. I. Theraphosidae nuevas o poco conocidas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 3: 195­–213.

Vlasov Y.P. & Sytshevskaya V.I. 1937. Pauki okrestnostei Ashkhabada [The spiders of the neighbourhood of Ashkhabad]. Problemy Parazitologii i Fauny Turkmenistana 9: 247–258.

Wheeler W.C., Coddington J.A., Crowley L.M., Dimitrov D., Goloboff P.A., Griswold C.E., Hormiga G., Prendini L., Ramírez M.J., Sierwald P., Almeida-Silva L.M., Álvarez-Padilla F., Arnedo M.A., Benavides L.R., Benjamin S.P., Bond J.E., Grismado C.J., Hasan E., Hedin M., Izquierdo M.A., Labarque F.M., Ledford J., Lopardo L., Maddison W.P., Miller J.A., Piacentini L.N., Platnick N.I., Polotow D., Silva-Dávila D., Scharff N., Szűts T., Ubick D., Vink C.J., Wood H.M. & Zhang J.X. 2017. The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33 (6): 576–616. https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12182

World Spider Catalog. 2018. World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Available from http://wsc.nmbe.ch, ver. 19.0 [accessed 16 Apr. 2018]. https://doi.org/10.24436/2

Zonstein S.L. 1985. Predvaritel’nye dannye po paukam podotryada Mygalomorphae fauny SSSR [Preliminary data on the spiders of the suborder Mygalomorphae of the USSR fauna]. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 139: 156–161.

Zonstein S.L. 1987. Novyi rod mygalomorphnyh paukov podsemeistva Nemesiinae (Aranei, Nemesiidae) fauny Palearktiki [A new mygalomorph spider genus of the subfamily Nemesiinae (Aranei, Nemesiidae) in the Palearctic fauna]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 66 (7): 1013–1019.

Zonstein S.L. 2000. New data on Middle Asian representatives of the spider wasp genera Hemipepsis Dahlbom, 1843, Dipogon Fox, 1897, Tachyagetes Haupt, 1930, Pareiocurgus Haupt, 1962 and Pamirospila Wolf, 1970 stat. n. (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae). Tethys Entomological Research 2: 167–186.

Zonstein S.L. 2001. Notes on allocation of the mygalomorph spider genus Anemesia Pocock, 1895 (Araneae), with description of a new congener from Tajikistan. Tethys Entomological Research 3: 11–14.

Zonstein S.L. 2004. The spider chelicerae: some problems of origin and evolution. In: Logunov D.V & Penney D. (eds) European Arachnology 2003. Proceedings of the 21st European Colloquium of Arachnology, St.-Petersburg, 4–9 August 2003. Arthropoda Selecta, Special Issue 1: 349–366.

Zonstein S.L. 2007. A new species of the spider wasp genus Claveliocnemis Wolf, with new data on distribution and biology of its congeners (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Israel Journal of Entomology 37: 211–220.

Zonstein S.L. 2009. A review of the mygalomorph spiders of the Raveniola caudata species-group (Araneae, Nemesiidae). Zootaxa 2217: 37–42.

Zonstein S.L. & Marusik Y.M. 2014. A redescription of Damarchus cavernicola Abraham, 1924, with notes on Damarchus Thorell, 1891 and Atmetochilus Simon, 1887 (Aranei: Nemesiidae). Arthropoda Selecta 23 (3): 273–278.

Zonstein S.L. & Marusik Y.M. 2016. A review of the spider genus Atmetochilus of Sumatra, Indonesia, with first analysis of male characters and description of three new species (Araneae, Nemesiidae). Zoological Studies 55 (10): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.6620/ZS.2016.55-10

Zonstein S., Kunt K.B. & Yağmur E.A. 2018. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae). I. Species from Western Asia. European Journal of Taxonomy 399: 1­–93. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.399


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/