Resolving the synonymy and polyphyly of the ‘Drosophila bakoue species complex’ (Diptera: Drosophilidae: ‘D. montium species group’) with descriptions of two new species from Madagascar

Amir Yassin, Arnaud Suwalski, Lala H. Raveloson Ravaomanarivo


The ‘D. bakoue species complex’ Rafael, 1984 (‘D. montium species group’ Da Lage et al., 2007) comprises seven Afrotropical species. Using complete mitochondrial genome sequences and detailed morphological analysis, we revised the phylogenetic relationships between these species including two new ones. We found the ‘D. bakoue species complex’ to be a junior synonym of the ‘D. seguyi species complex’ Lachaise, 1971 and its seven species polyphyletic. We thus classified the species into three complexes, the ‘D. seguyi species complex’ comprises D. seguyi Smart, 1945, D. malagassya Tsacas & Rafael, 1982, D. curta Chassagnard & Tsacas, 1997 and D. chocolata sp. nov., the new ‘D. tsacasi species complex’ comprises D. tsacasi Bock & Wheeler, 1972 and D. seguyiana Chassagnard & Tsacas, 1997, and the new ‘D. vulcana species complex’ comprises D. vulcana Graber, 1957 and D. mylenae sp. nov. Drosophila bakoue Tsacas & Lachaise, 1974 could not be assigned to any of the defined complexes. The two new species are endemic to Madagascar and we report the presence of D. seguyi and D. curta in Mayotte and Madagascar, respectively. The results hence represent a significant step towards understanding the diversity and evolution of this species group in Africa and the islands of the Western Indian Ocean.


Africa; integrative taxonomy; mitogenomics; phylogenetic classification

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