A new species of Anadia (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Venezuelan “Lost World”, northern South America

  • Philippe Kok 1Biology Department, Unit of Ecology and Systematics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2 Pleinlaan, B-1050 Brussels
  • Gilson A. Rivas Museo de Biologia, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, La Universidad del Zulia, Apartado Postal 526, Maracaibo 4011, Maracaibo
Keywords: Gymnophthalmidae, Lizard, Hemipenes, Chimantá Massif, Pantepui


A new gymnophthalmid lizard of the genus Anadia Gray, 1845 is described from the summit of Abakapá-tepui, Bolívar state, Venezuela, between 2200-2242 m elevation. The new species, Anadia mcdiarmidi sp. nov., is endemic to the Chimantá Massif and seemingly also occurs on Amurí-tepui and Murei-tepui. The new taxon is mainly distinguished from all known congeners by the following combination of characters: body fairly robust, tail longer than SVL, dorsal scales small, quadrangular, middorsal scales 53-57, suboculars large, subequal in size, with sometimes one scale slightly protruding downward between 4th and 5th supralabial, nasal entire, without sub-nostril groove, body uniform greyish to bluish brown in life, devoid of any conspicuous pattern in males, venter immaculate golden grey in life, femoral pores not extending onto preanal area, 9-10 on each side in males, preanal pores absent, hemipenis globose, weakly bilobed, bordered by numerous flounces (>20) bearing comblike rows of minute weakly mineralized spinules.


Boulenger G.A. 1903. Descriptions of new lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 12: 429-435.

Boulenger G.A. 1913. On a collection of Batrachians and Reptiles made by Dr. H.G.F. Spurrell, F.Z.S., in the Choco, Colombia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 83 (4): 1019-1038. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1913.tb02003.x

Brewer-Carías C. & Audy M. 2010. Entrañas del Mundo Perdido. Carlos Capriles de Altolitho C.A., Caracas.

Dowling H.G. & Savage J. 1960. A guide to the snake hemipenis: a survey of basic structure and systematic characteristics. Zoologica 45: 17-28.

Dunn E.R. 1944. The lizard genus Anadia and Ptychoglossus in Colombia. Caldasia 3: 63-68.

Frost D.R. 2011. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.5 (31 January, 2011). American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php [Access in: July 2011].

Gorzula S. 1992. La herpetofauna del macizo del Chimantá. In: Huber O (ed.), El Macizo del Chimantá: 267-280, 304-310. Oscar Todtmann Editores, Caracas.

Gorzula S. & Señaris J.C. 1999 “1998”. Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana: I. A data base. Scientia Guaianae 8: 1-269.

Gray J.E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London.

Gray J.E. 1846. Description of a new family and genus of lizards from Colombia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 18: 67.

Günther A. 1859. Second list of cold-blooded vertebrata collected by Mr. Fraser in the Andes of Western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 402-422.

Harris D.M. & Ayala S.C. 1987. A new Anadia (Sauria: Teiidae) from Colombia and restoration of Anadia pamplonensis Dunn to species status. Herpetologica 43 (2): 182-190.

La Marca E. & García-Pérez J.E. 1990. A new species of high Andean Anadia (Sauria: Teiidae) from Páramo El Riecito, Estado Trujillo, Venezuela. Herpetologica 46 (3): 275-282.

Manzani P.R. & Abe A.S. 1988. Sobre dois novos métodos de preparo de hemipenis de serpentes. Memórias do Instituto Butantan 50: 15-20.

McDiarmid R.W. & Donnelly M.A. 2005. The herpetofauna of the Guayana Highlands: amphibians and reptiles of the Lost World. In: Donnelly M.A., Crother B.I., Guyer C., Wake M.H. & White M.E. (eds.) Ecology and Evolution in the Tropics: A Herpetological Perspective: 461–560. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Montero R., Moro S.A. & Abdala V. 2002. Cranial anatomy of Euspondylus acutirostris (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) and its placement in a modern phylogenetic hypothesis. Russian Journal of Herpetology 9 (3): 215-228.

Myers C.W. & Donnelly M.A. 2008. The summit herpetofauna of Auyantepui, Venezuela: report from the Robert G. Goelet American Museum–Terramar Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 308: 1-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/308.1

Myers C.W., Rivas Fuenmayor G. & Jadin R.C. 2009. New species of lizards from Auyantepui and La Escalera in the Venezuelan Guayana, with notes on “microteiid” hemipenes (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). American Museum Novitates 3660: 1-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/657.1

Nieden F. 1914. Beschreibung einer neuen Tejiden-Art nebst Bemerkungen über einige Kriechtiere des Naturhistorischen Museum in Lübeck. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin: 364-366.

Oftedal O.T. 1974. A revision of the genus Anadia (Sauria, Teiidae). Arquivos de Zoologia, São Paulo 25 (4): 203-265.

Pellegrino K.C.M., Rodrigues M.T., Yonenaga-Yassuda Y. & Sites Jr. J.W. 2001. A molecular perspective on the evolution of microteiid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), and a new classification for the family. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 315-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bijl.2001.0580

Pesantes O. 1994. A method for preparing the hemipenis of preserved snakes. Journal of Herpetology 28: 93-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1564686

Peters W. 1863. Über Cercosaura und die mit dieser Gattung verwandten Eidechsen aus Südamerika. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1862: 165-225.

Rivas G.A., Sales Nunes P.M., Dixon J.R., Schargel W.E., Caicedo J.R., Barros T.R., Camargo E.G. & Barrio-Amorós C.L. In press. Taxonomy, hemipenial morphology and natural history of two poorly known species of Anadia (Gymnophthalmidae) from northern South America. Journal of Herpetology.

Rivas Fuenmayor G., La Marca E. & Oliveros O. 1999. Una nueva especie de Anadia (Reptilia: Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae) del noreste de Venezuela. Acta Biológica Venezuelica 19 (4): 27-32.

Rodrigues M.T., Freire E.M.X., Pellegrino K.C.M. & Sites Jr. J.W. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and species of microteiid lizard from the Atlantic forest of north-eastern Brazil (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 543–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00177.x

Rueda-Almonacid J.V. & Caicedo J.R. 2004. Una nueva especie de Anadia (Reptilia: Sauria: Gymnophthalmidae) para el noroccidente de la cordillera oriental de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 28 (107): 281-284.

Rull V. 2009. Pantepui. In: Gillespie R.G. & Clague D.A. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Islands: 717-720. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Ruthven A.G. 1926. A new species of Anadia from the Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 177: 1-3.

Savage J.M. 1997. On terminology for the description of the hemipenis of squamate reptiles. Herpetological Journal 7: 23-25.

Schmidt K.P. 1932. Reptiles and amphibians of the Mandel Venezuelan Expedition. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series 18 (7): 159-163.

Tschudi J.J. von 1845. Reptilium conspectum quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraque observata vel collecta sunt in itinere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11: 150-170.

Uzzell T. 1973. A revision of lizards of the genus Prionodactylus, with a new genus for P. leucostictus and notes on the genus Euspondylus (Sauria, Teiidae). Postilla 159: 1-67.

Zaher H. 1999. Hemipenial morphology of the South American xenodontine snakes with a proposal for a monophyletic Xenodontinae and a reappraisal of colubroid hemipenes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 240: 1-168.

How to Cite
Kok, P., & Rivas, G. A. (2011). A new species of Anadia (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Venezuelan “Lost World”, northern South America. European Journal of Taxonomy, (3). https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2011.3