Taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the elasmobranchs and bony fishes (Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes) of the lower-to-middle Eocene (Ypresian to Bartonian) Claiborne Group in Alabama, USA, including an analysis of otoliths

Jun A. Ebersole, David J. Cicimurri, Gary L. Stringer

Abstract


The Tallahatta Formation, Lisbon Formation, and Gosport Sand are the three lithostratigraphic units that make up the lower-to-middle Eocene Claiborne Group. In Alabama, these marine units are among the most fossiliferous in the state and a long history of scattered reports have attempted to document their fossil diversity. In this study, we examined 20931 elasmobranch and bony fish elements, including otoliths, derived from Claiborne Group units in Alabama and identified 115 unequivocal taxa. Among the taxa identified, one new species is described, Carcharhinus mancinae sp. nov., and Pseudabdounia gen. nov. is a new genus erected to include two species formerly placed within Abdounia Capatta, 1980. New taxonomic combinations proposed include Pseudabdounia claibornensis (White, 1956) gen. et comb. nov., Pseudabdounia recticona (Winkler, 1874) gen. et comb. nov., Physogaleus alabamensis (Leriche, 1942) comb. nov., and Eutrichiurides plicidens (Arambourg, 1952) comb. nov. We also report the first North American paleobiogeographic occurrences of Aturobatis aff. A. aquensis Adnet, 2006, Brachycarcharias atlasi (Arambourg, 1952), Eutrichiurides plicidens comb. nov., Galeorhinus louisi Adnet & Cappetta, 2008, Ginglymostoma maroccanum Noubhani & Cappetta, 1997, Gymnosarda sp., Mennerotodus sp., Rhizoprionodon ganntourensis (Arambourg, 1952), Stenoscyllium aff. S. priemi Noubhani & Cappetta, 1997, Trichiurus oshosunensis White, 1926, and the first North American occurrence for a fossil member of the Balistidae Risso, 1810. Our sample also included 26 taxa that represented first paleobiogeographic occurrences for Alabama, including Abdounia beaugei (Arambourg, 1935), Albula eppsi White, 1931, Ariosoma nonsector Nolf & Stringer, 2003, Anisotremus? sp., Anomotodon sp., Brachycarcharias twiggsensis (Case, 1981), Burnhamia daviesi (Woodward, 1889), Eoplinthicus yazooensis Capetta & Stringer, 2002, Galeorhinus ypresiensis (Casier, 1946), Gnathophis meridies (Frizzell & Lamber, 1962), Haemulon? obliquus (Müller, 1999), Hypolophodon sylvestris (White, 1931), Malacanthus? sulcatus (Koken, 1888), Meridiania cf. M. convexa Case, 1994, Palaeocybium proosti (Storms, 1897), Paraconger sector (Koken, 1888), Paralbula aff. P. marylandica Blake, 1940, Phyllodus toliapicus Agassiz, 1844, Propristis schweinfurthi Dames, 1883, Pycnodus sp., Pythonichthys colei (Müller, 1999), Scomberomorus stormsi (Leriche, 1905), Signata stenzeli Frizzell & Dante, 1965, and Signata nicoli Frizzell & Dante, 1965, and the first Paleogene occurrences in Alabama of a member of the Gobiidae Cuvier, 1816. A biostratigraphic analysis of our sample showed stratigraphic range extensions for several taxa, including the first Bartonian occurrences of Eoplinthicus yazooensis, Jacquhermania duponti (Winkler, 1876), Meridiania cf. M. convexa, Phyllodus toliapicus, and “Rhinobatosbruxelliensis (Jaekel, 1894), range extensions into the late Ypresian and Bartonian for Tethylamna dunni Cappetta & Case, 2016 and Scoliodon conecuhensis Cappetta & Case, 2016, the first late Ypresian records of Galeorhinus louisi, the first Lutetian occurrence of Gymnosarda Gill, 1862, and a range extension for Fisherichthys aff. F. folmeri Weems, 1999 into the middle Bartonian. Larger biostratigraphic and evolutionary trends are also documented, such as the acquisition of serrations in Otodus spp., possible population increases for the Rhinopterinae Jordan & Evermann, 1896 and Carcharhiniformes Compagno, 1973 in the Bartonian, and the apparent diversification of the Tetraodontiformes Berg, 1940 during the same stage. This study helps better our understanding of early-to-middle Eocene elasmobranch and bony fish diversity, paleobiogeography, and biostratigraphy in the Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

Keywords


Tallahatta Formation; Lisbon Formation; Gosport Sand; Gulf Coastal Plain; Elasmobranchii; Teleostei

Full Text:

PDF PDF/A


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.585

References


Abbass H.L. 1972. Paleontological studies of some Saudi Arabian lower Tertiary fossils. Egyptian Journal of Geology 16 (1): 35–68.

Adnet S. 2006. Nouvelles faunes de sélaciens (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) de l’Éocène des Landes (Sud-Ouest, France). Implication dans les connaissances des communautés d’eaux profondes. Palaeo Ichthyologica 10: 1–128.

Adnet S. & Cappetta H. 2008. New fossil triakid sharks from the Eocene of Prémontré, France, and comments on fossil record of the family. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53 (3): 433–448. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2008.0306

Adnet S., Antoine P.-O., Baqri S.R.H., Crochet J.-Y., Marivaux L., Welcomme J.-L. & Metais G. 2007. New tropical carcharhinids (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30: 303–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.10.002

Adnet S., Cappetta H. & Tabuce R. 2010. A Middle-Late Eocene vertebrate fauna (marine fish and mammals) from southwestern Morocco; preliminary report, age and palaeobiogeographical implications. Geological Magazine 147 (6): 860–870. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756810000348

Adnet S., Cappetta H., Guinot G. & Notabartolo Di Sciara G. 2012. Evolutionary history of the devilrays (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from fossil and morphological inference. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 166 (1): 132–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00844.x

Adolfssen J.S. & Ward D.J. 2015. Neoselachians from the Danian (early Paleocene) of Denmark. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60 (2): 313–338. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2012.0123

Agassiz L.J.R. 1833–1844. Recherches sur les Poissons fossiles. Imprimerie de Petitpierre, Neuchâtel. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.4275

Allen T.B. 1999. The Shark Almanac. Lyons Press, New York.

Applegate S.P. 1968. A large sand shark of the genus Odontaspis from Oregon. The Ore Bin 30 (2): 32–36.

Applegate S.P. & Espinosa-Arrubarrena L. 1996. The fossil history of Carcharodon and its possible ancestor, Cretolamna: a study in tooth identification. In: Klimley A.P. & Ainley D. (eds) Great White Sharks. The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias: 19–36. Academic Press, San Diego.

Arambourg C. 1935. Note préliminaire sur les vertébrés fossiles des phosphates du Maroc. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 5 (5): 413–439.

Arambourg C. 1952. Les vertébrés fossiles des gisements de phosphates (Maroc-Algérie-Tunisie). Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc 92: 1–372.

Averianov A.O. & Udovivhenko N.I. 1993. Age of vertebrates from the Andarak locality (southern Fergana). Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 1 (3): 139–141.

Bannikov A.F. 1982. A new species of mackerel from the upper Eocene of Mangyshlak. Paleontological Journal 16 (2):135–139.

Bannikov A.F. & Carnevale G. 2009. A new percoid fish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy, Hendrixella grandei gen. and sp. nov. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 102 (3): 481–488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-009-1331-3

Bannikov A.F. & Tyler J.C. 2008. A new genus and species of triggerfish from the middle Eocene of the Northern Caucasus, the earliest member of the Balistidae (Tetraodontiformes). Paleontological Journal 42 (6): 615–620. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0031030108060075

Bassani F. 1877. Nuovi squalidi fossili. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memoir 3: 77–82.

Bassani F. 1899. La Ittiofauna del calcare eocenico di Gassino Piemonte. Società Reale Napoli, Atti Reale Accademia delle Scienze Fische e Matematiche 2 (9/13): 1–41.

Baum G.R. & Vail P.R. 1988. Sequence stratigraphic concepts applied to Paleogene Outcrops, Gulf and Atlantic Basins. In: Wilgus C.K., Hastings B.S., Posamentier H., Van Wagoner J., Ross C.A. & Kendall C.G. (eds) Sea Level Changes: An Integrated Approach: 309–326. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa.

Baut J.-P. & Genault B. 1995. Contribution à l’étude des élasmobranches du Thanétien (Paléocène) du Bassin de Paris. 1. Découverte d’une faune d’Elasmobranches dans la partie supérieure des Sables de Bracheux (Thanétien, Paléocène du Bassin de Paris) des régions de Compiègne (Oise) et de Montdidier (Somme). Belgian Geological Survey, Professional Paper, Elasmobranches et Stratigraphie 278: 185–259.

Brazzi M., Kear B.P., Blom H., Ahlberg P.E., Nicolás E. & Campione N.E. 2018. Static dental disparity and morphological turnover in sharks across the End-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current Biology 28: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.05.093

Becker M.A. & Chamberlain J.A. Jr. 2012. Osteichthyans from the Paleocene Clayton Limestone of the Midway Group, Hot Springs County, Arkansas, USA, bony fish evolution across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Paludicola 8 (4):194–207.

Ben-Tuvia A. & McKay R. 1986. Haemulidae. In: Whitehead P.J.P., Bauchot M.L., Hureau J.-C., Nielsen J. & Tortonese E. (eds) Fishes of North-Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Volume 2: 858–864. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris.

Berkovitz B. & Shellis P. 2016. Teeth of Non-Mammalian Vertebrates. Elsevier, Inc., London.

Betancur-R. R., Broughton R.E., Wiley E.O., Carpenter K., López J.A., Li C., Holcroft N.I., Arcila D., Sanciangco M., Cureton J.C. II, Zhang F., Buser T., Campbell M.A., Ballesteros J.A., Roa-Varon A., Willis S., Borden W.C., Rowley T., Reneau P.C., Hough D.J., Lu G., Grande T., Arratia G. & Ortí G. 2013. The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes. PLOS Currents: Tree of Life. Available from

http://currents.plos.org/treeoflife/article/the-tree-of-life-and-a-new-classification-of-bony-fishes/ [accessed 5 Jan. 2017]. https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288

Blake S.F. 1940. Paralbula, a new fossil fish based on dental plates from the Eocene and Miocene of Maryland. Washington Academy of Sciences Journal 30: 205–209.

Bloch M.E. & Schneider J.G. 1801. M.E. Blochii Systema Ichthyologiae iconibus ex illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit. J.G. Schneider, Saxo.

Bohlke J. & Chaplin C. 1968. Fishes of the Bahamas and Adjacent Tropical Waters. Livingston Publishing Company, Wynnewood.

Bohlke J. & Chaplin C. 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and Adjacent Tropical Waters, 2nd Edition. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Bone D.A., Todd J.A. & Tracey S. 1991. Fossils from the Bracklesham Group exposed in the M27 Motorway excavations, Southampton, Hampshire. Tertiary Research 12 (3–4): 131–137.

Bor T.J. 1980. Elasmobranchii from the Atuatuca Formation (Oligocene) in Belgium. Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 17 (1): 3–16.

Bor T.J. 1985. Elasmobranch teeth (Vertebrata, Pisces) from the Dongen Formation (Eocene) in the Netherlands. Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 22 (2): 73–122.

Breard S. & Stringer G. 1995. Paleoenvironment of a diverse marine vertebrate fauna from the Yazoo Clay (late Eocene) at Copenhagen, Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 45: 77–85.

Breard S. & Stringer G. 1999. Integrated paleoecology and marine vertebrate fauna of the Stone City Formation (middle Eocene), Brazos River section, Texas. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 49: 132–142.

Bybell L.M. & Gibson T.G. 1985. The Eocene Tallahatta Formation of Alabama and Georgia, its lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and bearing on the age of the Claibornian Stage. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1615: 1–20.

Cahuzac B., Adnet S., Cappetta H. & Vullo R. 2007. Les espèces et genres de poissons sélaciens fossiles (Crétacé, Tertiaire) créés dans le Bassin d’Aquitaine; recensement, taxonomie. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux 142 (35): 3–43.

Campana S. 2004. Photographic Atlas of Fish Otoliths of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 133, NRC Research Press, Ottawa.

Campbell R. 1929a. Fish otoliths, their occurrence and value as stratigraphic markers. Journal of Paleontology 3 (3): 254–279.

Campbell R. 1929b. Bibliography of otoliths. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists in conjunction with the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Special Contribution 1: 1–31. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.29.01

Cappetta H. 1972. Les poissons crétacés et tertiaires du bassin des Iullemmeden (République du Niger). Palaeovertebrata 5 (5): 179–251.

Cappetta H. 1976. Sélaciens nouveaux du London Clay de l’Essex (Yprésien du Bassin de Londres). Géobios 9 (5): 551–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(76)80024-1

Cappetta H. 1980a. Modification du statut générique de quelques espèces de sélaciens crétacés et tertiaires. Palaeovertebrata 10 (1): 29–42.

Cappetta H. 1980b. Les selaciens du Cretace superieur du Liban. II, Batoides. Palaeontolographica Abteilung A 168 (5–6): 149–229.

Cappetta H. 1982. Révision de Cestracion duponti Winkler, 1874 (Selachii, Batomorphii) du Bruxellien de Woluwe-Saint-Lambert (Eocène moyen de Belgique). Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 19 (4): 113–125.

Cappetta H. 1985. Sur un nouvelle espèce de Burnhamia (Batomorphii, Mobulidae) de l’Yprésien des Oules Abdoun, Maroc. Tertiary Research 7 (1): 27–33.

Cappetta H. 1986. Myliobatidae nouveaux (Neoselachii, Batomorphii) de l’Yprésien des Ouled Abdoun, Maroc. Geologica et Palaeontologica 20: 185–207.

Cappetta H. 1987. Chondrichthyes II. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii. Handbook of Palaeoichthyology. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Cappetta H. 1988. Les Torpédiniformes (Neoselachii, Batomorphii) des phosphates du Maroc. Observations sur la denture des genres actuels. Tertiary Research 10 (1): 21–52.

Cappetta H. 1992. Carcharhiniformes nouveaux (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) de l’Yprésien du Bassin de Paris. Géobios 25 (5): 639–646. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-6995(92)80103-K

Cappetta H. 2012. Chondrichthyes (Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii, Teeth). Handbook of Palaeoichthyology. Verlag Friedrich Pfeil, München.

Cappetta H. & Case G.R. 2016. A selachian fauna from the middle Eocene (Lutetian, Lisbon Formation) of Andalusia, Covington County, Alabama, USA. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 307 (1–6): 43–103.

Cappetta H. & Nolf D. 1981. Les sélaciens du Pliocène inférieur de Le-Puget-sur-Argens (Sud-Est de la France). Palaeontographica Abteilung A 218 (1–3): 49–67.

Cappetta H. & Nolf D. 2005. Révision de quelques Odontaspididae (Neoselachii, Lamniformes) du Paléocène et de l’Eocène du Bassin de la Mer du Nord. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Science de la Terre 75: 237–266.

Cappetta H. & Stringer G.L. 2002. A new batoid genus (Neoselachii: Myliobatiformes) from the Yazoo Clay (upper Eocene) of Louisiana, USA. Tertiary Research 21 (104): 51–56.

Cappetta H. & Traverse M. 1988. Une riche faune de sélaciens dans le bassin à phosphate de Kpogamé-Hahotoé (Éocène moyen du Togo), Note préliminaire et précisions sur la structure et l’âge du gisement. Géobios 21 (3): 359–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(88)80058-5

Carlsen A.W. & Cuny G. 2014. A study of the sharks and rays from the Lillebælt Clay (early–middle Eocene) of Denmark, and their palaeoecology. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 62: 39–88.

Carrillo-Briceño J.D., Maxwell E., Aguilera O.A., Sánchez R. & Sánchez-Villagra M.R. 2015. Sawfishes and other elasmobranch assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, northwestern Venezuela). PLOS One 10 (10): e0139230. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139230

Carrillo-Briceño J.D., Aguilera O.A., De Gracia C., Aguirre-Fernández G., Kindlimann R. & Sánchez-Villagra M.R. 2016. An early Neogene elasmobranch fauna from the southern Caribbean (western Venezuela). Palaeontologia Electronica 10948074. https://doi.org/10.26879/664

Case G.R. 1980. A selachian fauna from the Trent Formation, lower Miocene (Aquitanian) of Eastern North Carolina. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 171 (1–3): 75–103.

Case G.R. 1981. Late Eocene selachians from South-central Georgia. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 176 (1–3).

Case G.R. 1986. The bony fishes (Teleosts) of the Tuscahoma and Bashi formations, early Eocene, Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Mississippi Geology 6: 6–8.

Case G.R. 1994a. Fossil fish remains from the late Paleocene Tuscahoma and early Eocene Bashi formations of Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Part I – Selachians. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 230 (4–6): 97–138.

Case G.R. 1994b. Fossil fish remains from the late Paleocene Tuscahoma and early Eocene Bashi formations of Meridian, Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Part II – Teleosteans. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 230 (4–6): 139–153.

Case G.R. & Borodin P.D. 2000a. Late Eocene selachians from Irwinton Sand Member of the Barnwell Formation (Jacksonian), WKA mines, Gordon, Wilkinson Country, Georgia. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A) 39: 5–16.

Case G.R. & Borodin P.D. 2000b. A middle Eocene Selachian Fauna from the Castle Hayne Limestone Formation of Duplin County, North Carolina. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A) 39: 17–32.

Case G.R. & Cappetta H. 1990. The Eocene selachian fauna from the Fayum Depression in Egypt. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 212 (1–6): 1–30.

Case G.R. & West R.M. 1991. Geology and Paleontology of the Eocene Drazinda Shale Member of the Khirthar Formation, central Western Pakistan, Part II Late Eocene fishes. Tertiary Research 12 (3–4): 105–120.

Case G.R., Udovichenko N.I., Nessov L.A., Averianov A.O. & Borodin P.D. 1996. A middle Eocene selachian fauna from the White Mountain Formation of the Kizylkum Desert, Uzbekistan, C.I.S. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 242 (4–6): 99–126.

Case G.R., Cook T.D. & Wilson M.V.H. 2015. A new elasmobranch assemblage from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Fishburne Formation of Berkeley County, South Carolina, USA. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 52 (12): 1121–1136. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2015-0061

Casier E. 1944. Contributions à l’étude des poissons fossiles de la Belgique. V. Les genres Trichiurides Winkler (s. str.) et Eutrichiurides nov. Leurs affinités respectives. Bulletin du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 20 (11): 1–16.

Casier E. 1946. La faune ichthyologique de l’Yprésien de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 104: 1–267.

Casier E. 1950. Contributions à l’étude des poissons fossiles de la Belgique. IX. La faune des formations dites “paniséliennes”. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 26 (42): 1–52.

Casier E. 1952. Deux diodontidés Éocènes nouveaux, Progymnodon batalleri nov. sp., du Bartonien de Catalogne, et Eodiodon bauzai nov. gen., nov sp., du Bartonien de Belgique. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 28 (4): 1–14.

Casier E. 1958. Contribution à l’étude des poissons fossiles des Antilles. Mémoires Suisses de Paléontologie 74: 1–95.

Casier E. 1960. Note sur la collection des poissons paléocènes et éocènes de l’Enclave de Cabinda (Congo). Annales du Musée du Congo belge, Séries A (Minéralogie Géologie, Paléontologie) 1 (2): 1–48.

Casier E. 1966. Faune ichthyologique du London Clay. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Casier E. 1967. Le Landénien de Dormaal (Brabant) et sa faune ichthyo­logique. Mémoires de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 156: 1–66.

Causey L.V. & Newton J.G. 1972. Geology of Clarke County, Alabama. Alabama Geological Survey Special Map 95: 1–20.

Chandler R.E., Chiswell K.E. & Faulkner G.D. 2006. Quantifying a possible Miocene phyletic change in Hemipristis (Chondrichthyes) teeth. Palaeontologia Electronica 9 (1) 4A: 1–14.

Chao L. 2003. Sciaenidae. In: Carpenter K. (ed.) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony Fishes Part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae): 1583–1653. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologist and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5, Rome.

Chavan A. 1938. Un groupe africain de carditidés, Cossmannella Mayer-Eymar. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 8 (1): 3–10.

Ciampaglio C.N., Cicimurri D.J., Ebersole J.A. & Runyon K.E. 2013. A note on Late Cretaceous fish taxa recovered from stream gravels at site AGr-43 in Greene County, Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 31 (1): 84–98.

Cicimurri D.J. 2007. A partial rostrum of the sawfish Pristis lathami Galeotti, 1837, from the Eocene of South Carolina. Journal of Paleontology 81 (3): 597–601. https://doi.org/10.1666/05086.1

Cicimurri D.J. 2010. On the dentition of Meridiania convexa Case (Myliobatoidea), an extinct early Eocene ray from the United States. Cainozoic Research 7 (1–2): 99–107.

Cicimurri D.J. & Knight J.L. 2009. New record of an extinct fish, Fisherichthys folmeri Weems (Osteichthyes), from the lower Eocene of Berkeley County, South Carolina, USA. PaleoBios 29 (1): 24–28.

Cicimurri D.J. & Ebersole J.A. 2015. Two new species of Pseudaetobatus Cappetta, 1986 (Batoidei, Myliobatidae) from the southeastern United States. Palaeontologia Electronica 18 (1) 15A: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.26879/524

Cicimurri D.J. & Knight J.L. 2019. Late Eocene (Priabonian) elasmobranchs from the Dry Branch Formation (Barnwell Group) of Aiken County, South Carolina, USA. Paleobios 36: 1–31.

Cicimurri D.J., Knight J.L., Self-Trail J.M. & Ebersole S.M. 2016. Late Paleocene glyptosaur (Reptilia: Anguidae) osteoderms from South Carolina, USA. Journal of Paleontology 90 (1): 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1017/jpa.2016.16

Ciobanu R. 2011. Eotrigonodon (Osteichthyes, Plectognatii) in Richard Breckner’s collection (Natural History Museum Sibiu). Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia. Studii şi comunicări. Ştiinţele Naturii 27 (2/2011): 203–209.

Ciobanu R. & Trif N. 2012. Diodontidae (Osteichthyes from the Turnu Rosu (Romania) Eocene Limestone Reserve. Brukenthal. Acta Musei VII (3): 631–642.

Claeson K.M., Underwood C.J. & Ward D.J. 2013. †Tingitanius tenuimandibulus, a new platyrhinid batoid from the Turonian (Cretaceous) of Morocco and the Cretaceous radiation of the Platyrhinidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (5): 1019–1036. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2013.767266

Clayton A.A., Ciampaglio, C.N. & Cicimurri, D.J. 2013. An inquiry into the stratigraphic occurrence of a Claibornian (Eocene) vertebrate fauna from Covington County, Alabama. Bulletin Alabama Museum of Natural History 31 (2): 60–73.

Clothier C.R. 1950. A key to some southern California fishes based on vertebral characters. State of California Department of Natural Resources Division of Fish and Game Bureau of Marine Fisheries, Fish Bulletin 79: 1–88.

Cocchi I. 1864. Monographia dei Pharyngodopilidae, nouva famiglia di Pesci Labroide, studi paleontologici. Coi Tipi di M. Cellini, Rome.

Collette B.B. 2003. Family Scombridae Rafinesque, 1815 – mackerels, tunas, and bonitos. California Academy of Sciences Annotated Checklists of Fishes 19: 1–28.

Compagno L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol 4, Sharks of the World, Part 2 – Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 4 (2): 251–633.

Compagno L.J.V. 1988. Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Compagno L.J.V. 2005. Global checklist of living chondrichthyan fishes. In: Fowler S.L., Cavanagh R.D., Camhi M., Burgess G.H., Cailliet G.M., Fordham S.V., Simpfendorfer C.A. & Musick J.A. (eds) Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras, the Status of Chondrichthyan Fishes: 401–423. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.

Conrad T.A. 1835. Fossil shells of the Tertiary formations of North America, Eocene fossils of Claiborne, with observa­tions on this formation in the United States, and a geological map of Alabama. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1 (3): 29–56.

Cooke C.W. 1933. Definition of Cocoa Sand Member of Jackson Formation. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 17 (11): 1387–1388.

Cope E.D. 1870. Eocene marl of Farmingdale, Monmouth Co., N.J. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 12: 294.

Cope E.D. 1871. Observations on the systematic relations of the fishes. The American Naturalist 5: 579–593. https://doi.org/10.1086/270831

Copeland C.W. 1966. Facies Changes in the Alabama Tertiary. Alabama Geological Society Fourth Annual Field Trip Guidebook, Tuscaloosa.

Crane P.R., Manchester S.R. & Dilcher D.L. 1990. A preliminary survey of fossil leaves and well-preserved reproductive structures from the Sentinel Butte Formation (Paleocene) near Almont, North Dakota. Fieldiana, Geology, New Series 20: 1–63. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.100826

Cunningham S.B. 2000. A comparison of isolated teeth of early Eocene Striatolamia macrota (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes), with those of a Recent sand shark, Carcharias taurus. Tertiary Research 20 (1–4): 17–31.

Cuvier G. 1828–1849. Histoire naturelle des Poissons. 22 vols, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7339

Cvancara A.M. & Hoganson J.W. 1993. Vertebrates of the Cannonball Formation (Paleocene) in North and South Dakota. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13 (1): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1993.10011484

Dames W. 1883. Uber eine tertiare Wirbeltierfauna von der westllichen Insel des Birket el Qurun im Fajum (Aegyptem). Sitzungsberichte der königlich – preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 129–153.

Dames W. 1888. Amblypristis cheops nov. gen. nov. sp. aus dem Eocän Aegyptens. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1888: 106–108.

Dante J.H. 1954. Otoliths of a new fish from the Miocene of Maryland. Journal of Paleontology 27 (6): 877–879.

Darnell R.M., Defenbaugh R.E. & Moore D. 1983. Northwestern Gulf Shelf Bio-Atlas: A study of the distribution of demersal fishes and penaeid shrimp of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf from the Rio Grande to the Mississippi River Delta. Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior Open File Report 82–04: 1–438.

Dartevelle E. & Casier E. 1943. Les Poissons fossils du Bas-Congo et des regions voisines. Annals of the Museum of the Congo belge Séries A (Minéralogie Géologie, Paléontologie, Série 3 2 (2): 1–200.

Dartevelle E. & Casier E. 1959. Les poissons fossiles du Bas-Congo et des régions voisines. Annales du Musée du Congo belge, Séries A (Minéralogie Géologie, Paléontologie), Série 3 2 (3): 257–568.

de Blainville H.M.D. 1818. Sur les ichthyolites ou les poissons fossiles. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire naturelle 27: 310–391.

de Muizon C. 1983. Pliopontos littoralis un nouveau Platanistidae Cetacea du Pliocene de la cote peruvienne. Comptes rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Paris Serie II (296): 1101–1104.

Dennis G.D., Hensley D., Colin P. & Kimmel J. 2004. New records of marine fishes from the Puerto Rican plateau. Caribbean Journal of Science 40 (1): 70–87.

Daimeries A. 1889. Notes ichthyologiques – V. Annales de la Société royale malacologique de Belgique, Bulletin des Séances 24: 39–44.

Daimeries A. 1891. Notes ichthyologiques – VI. Annales de la Société royale malacologique de Belgique, Bulletin des Séances 26: 73–77.

Dica E.P. 2002. A review of the Eocene diodontids and labrids from Transylvania. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia 47 (2): 37–46.

Diedrich C.J. 2013. Evolution of white and megatooth sharks, and evidence for early predation on seals, sirenians, and whales. Natural Science 5 (11): 1203–1218. https://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.511148

Divay J.D. & Murray A.M. 2016. The fishes of the Farson Cutoff Fishbed, Bridger Formation (Eocene), greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 36 (6): e1212867. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2016.1212867

Ducrocq S., Boisserie J.-R., Tiercelin J.-J., Delmer C., Garcia G., Kyalo M.F., Leakey M.G., Marivaux L., Otero O., Peigné S., Tassy P. & Lihoreau F. 2010. New Oligocene vertebrate localities from Northern Kenya (Turkana basin). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (1): 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724630903413065

Dutheil D.B. 1991. A checklist of Neoselachii (Pisces, Chondrichthyes) from the Palaeogene of the Paris Basin, France. Tertiary Research 1 (1): 27–36.

Dutheil D.B., Moreau F. & De Plöeg G. 2006. Les ichthyofaunes du gisement à ambre de Le Quesnoy (Paléocène et Éocène du bassin de Paris, France). Cossmanniana 11 (1–4): 1–13.

Eastman C.R. 1901. Pisces (of Eocene of Maryland). Maryland Geological Survey 1: 98–115.

Eastman C.R. 1904. Pisces. In: Clark W.B., Shattuck G.B. & Dall W.H. (eds) Miocene Text. Maryland Geological Survey: 71–93. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Ebersole J.A. & Dean L.S. 2013. The history of Late Cretaceous vertebrate research in Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 31 (1): 3–45.

Ebersole J.A. & Jacquemin S.J. 2018. A late Miocene (Hemphillian) freshwater fish (Osteichthyes) fauna from Mobile County, Alabama, USA. Historical Biology 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2018.1530995

Ebert D.A. & Stehmann M. 2013. Sharks, batoids, and chimaeras of the North Atlantic. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes 7: 1–523.

Ehret D.J. & Ebersole J.A. 2014. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes, Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA. PeerJ 2: e625. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.625

Ehret D.J., MacFadden B.J., Jones D.S., Devries T.J., Foster D.A. & Salas-Gismondi R. 2012. Origin of the white shark Carcharodon (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) based on recalibration of the upper Neogene Pisco Formation of Peru. Palaeontology 55: 1139–1153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01201.x

Estes R. 1969. Studies on fossil phyllodont fishes, interrelationships and evolution in the Phyllodontidae (Albuloidei). Copeia 1969 (2): 317–331. https://doi.org/10.2307/1442082

Fanti F., Minelli D., Conte G.L. & Miyashita T. 2016. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web. Zoological Letters 2: 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40851-016-0045-4

Feldmann R.M & Portell R.W. 2007. First report of Costacopluma Collins and Morris, 1975 (Decopoda, Brachyura, Retroplumidae) from the Eocene of Alabama, USA. Journal of Crustacean Biology 27 (1): 90–96. https://doi.org/10.1651/S-2712.1

Flis J., Yancey T. & Flis C. 2017. Middle Eocene storm deposition in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Burleson County, Texas, U.S.A. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Journal 6: 201–225.

Forey P.L. 1973. A revision of the elopiform fishes, fossil and recent. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology 10: 1–222.

Fowler H.W. 1911. A description of the fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations of New-Jersey. Geological Survey of New Jersey Bulletin 4: 1–182. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.63936

Fraas E. 1907. Säge von Propristis schweinfurthi Dames aus dem oberen Eocän von Ägypten. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie und Paläontologie 1907 (1): 1–6.

Frizzell D.L. 1965. Otolith-based genera and lineages of fossil bonefishes (Clupeiformes, Albulidae). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 46 (a): 85–110.

Frizzell D.L. & Dante J.H. 1965. Otoliths of some early Cenozoic fishes of the Gulf Coast. Journal of Paleontology 39 (4): 368–718.

Frizzell D.L. & Lamber C. 1961. New genera and species of myripristic fishes, in the Gulf Coast Cenozoic, known from otolith (Pisces: Beryciformes). Bulletin of the University of Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy Technical Series 100: 1–25.

Frizzell D.L. & Lamber C. 1962. Distinctive “congrid type” fish otoliths from the lower Tertiary of the Gulf Coast (Pisces: Anguilliformes). Proceedings of the California Academy of Science Series 4 (32): 87–101.

Froese R. & Pauly D. (eds). 2019. FishBase. World Wide Web Electronic Publication. Available from www.fishbase.org [ accessed Aug. 2019].

Gago F.J. 1997. Character evolution and phylogeny of the cutlassfishes: and ontogenetic perspective (Scombroidei: Trichiuridae). Bulletin of Marine Sciences 60: 161–191.

Garrick J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA Technical Report NMFS Circular 445: 1–209.

Gayet M., Rage J.-C. & Rana R.S. 1984. Nouvelle ichthyofauna et herpetofauna de Gitti Khada, le plus ancient gisement connu du Deccan (Crétacé/Paléocène) a microvertebrés. Implications paléogéographiques. Société géologique de France, New Series 147: 55–65.

Gheerbrant E., Cappetta H., De Lapparent de Broin F., Rage J.-C. & Tabuce R. 2017. The marine and terrestrial vertebrate faunas from the Paleogene of the Ouarzazate basin, Morocco. In: Zouhri S. (ed.) Mémoires de la Société géologique de France, vol. 180, Paléontologie des Vertébrés du Maroc: État des Connaissancess: 485–525.

Gibbes R.W. 1848. Monograph of the fossil Squalidae of the United States. Article 14. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1 (2): 191–206.

Girard C.F. 1858. Notes upon various new genera and new species of fishes, in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and collected in connection with the United States and Mexican boundary survey: Major William Emory, Commissioner. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10: 167–171.

Glikman L.S. 1964. [Sharks of Paleogene and their Stratigraphic Significance]. Nauka Press, Moscow. [In Russian.]

González-Rodríguez K.A., Espinosa-Arrubarrena L. & González-Barba G. 2013. An overview of the Mexican fossil fish record. In: Arratia G., Schultze H.-P. & Wilson M.V.H. (eds) Mesozoic Fishes 5 – Global Diversity and Evolution: 9–34. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.

Goodwin M.B., Clemens W.A., Hutchison J.H., Wood C.B., Zavada M.S., Kemp A., Duffin C.J. & Schaff C.R. 1999. Mesozoic continental vertebrates with associated palynostratigraphic dates from the northwestern Ethiopian plateau. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19 (4): 728–741. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1999.10011185

Grande L. 2010. An empirical synthetic pattern study of gars (Lepisosteiformes) and closely related species, based mostly on skeletal anatomy. The resurrection of Holostei. Copeia 2a (Supplement): 1–871.

Green T. & Stringer G. 2002. Late Eocene otolith-based fishes from the Moodys Branch Formation in Louisiana and Mississippi and their paleoecological implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22 (supplement to no. 3): 61A.

Haefeli C.H., Maync W., Oertli H.J. & Rutsch R.F. 1965. Die Typus-Profile des Valanginien und Hauterivien. Bulletin der Vereinigung Schweizerischer Petroleum-Geologen und Ingenieure 31 (81): 41–75.

Harlan R. 1834. Notice of fossil bones found in the Tertiary formation of the State of Louisiana. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 4: 397–403. https://doi.org/10.2307/1004838

Herendeen P.S. & Jacobs B.F. 2000. Fossil legumes from the middle Eocene (46.0 Ma) Mahenge Flora of Singida, Tanzania. American Journal of Botany 87 (9): 1358–1366. https://doi.org/10.2307/2656727

Herman J. 1972. Contribution à la connaissance de la faune ichthyologique des phosphates du Moroc. Annales de Société géologique de Belgique 95 (2): 271–283.

Herman J. 1974. Compléments palaeoichthyologiques à la faune éocène de la Belgique. 2. Présence du genre Eotorpedo White, E.I., 1935 dans les Sables de Forest (Yprésien supérieur belge). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologié 83 (1): 33–34.

Herman J. 1977. Les Sélaciens des terrains néocrétacés et paléocènes de Belgique et des contrées limitrophes. Eléments d’une biostratigraphie intercontinentale. Mémoires pour servir à l’explication des Cartes géologiques et minières de la Belgique 15: 1–401.

Herman J. & Crochard M. 1977. Additions to the Eocene fish fauna of Belgium. 3. Revision of the Orectolobiforms. Tertiary Research 1 (4): 127–138.

Herman J. & Van den Eeckhaut G. 2010. Inventaire systématique des Invertebrata, Vertebrata, Plantae et Fungi des Sables de Bruxelles. Geominpal Belgica. Découvertes géologiques, minéralogiques et paléontologiques en Belgique 1 (2): 35–65.

Herman J., Hovestadt-Euler M., Hovestadt D.C. & Stehmann M. 2000. Contributions to the study of the comparative morphology of teeth and other relevant ichthyodorulites in living superaspecific taxa of Chondrichthyan fishes. Part B: Batomorphii 4c: Order: Rajiformes – Suborder Myliobatoidei – Superfamily Dasyatoidea – Family Dasyatidae – Subfamily Dasyatinae – Genus: Urobatis, Subfamily Potamotrygoninae – Genus: Pomatotrogon, Superfamily Plesiobatoidea – Family Plesiobatidae – Genus: Plestiobatis, Superfamily Myliobatoidea – Family Myliobatidae Subfamily Myliobatinae – Genera: Aetobatus, Aetomylaeus, Myliobatis and Pteromylaeus, Subfamily Rhinopterinae – Genus: Rhinoptera and Subfamily Mobulinae – Genera: Manta and Mobula. Addendum 1 to 4a: erratum to Genus Pteroplatytrygon. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie 70: 5–67.

Herman J., Hovestadt-Euler M., Hovestadt D.C. & Stehmann M. 2002. Contributions to the study of the comparative morphology of teeth and other relevant ichthyodorulites in living supraspecific taxa of chondrichthyan fishes. Part B: Batomorphii. No. 4: Order Torpediniformes – Family Narcinidae – Subfamily Narcininae – Genera: Benthobatis, Diplobatis, Discopyge and Narcine, Subfamily Narkinae – Genera: Bengalichthys, Crassinarke, Heteronarce, Narke, Temera, and Typhlonarke, Family Torpedinidae – Subfamily Torpedininae – Genus: Torpedo – Subfamily T. (Tetronarke) and T. (Torpedo) and Subfamily Hypninae – Genus: Hypnos. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie 72: 5–45.

Herman J., D’Haeze B. & Van den Eeckhaut G. 2010. Observations et découvertes géologiques et paléontologiques réalisées dans les Sables de Bruxelles, le Conglomérat de base des Sables de Lede et dans les Sables de Lede (Lutétien inférieur et moyen) en Brabant flamand, de l’Hiver, 1995 au Printemps, 2010. Geominpal Belgica 1: 13–34.

Hoese H. & Moore R. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, and adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Holman J.A. & Case G.R. 1988. Reptiles from the Eocene Tallahatta Formation of Alabama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 8 (3): 328–333. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1988.10011716

Hovestadt D.C. & Hovestadt-Euler M. 2013. Generic assessment and reallocation of Cenozoic Myliobatinae based on new information of tooth, tooth plate and caudal spine morphology of extant taxa. Palaeontos 24: 1–66.

International Code on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International code of zoological nomenclature, 4th edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, c/o Natural History Museum, London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50608

Iserbyt A. & De Schutter P.J. 2012. Quantitative analysis of elasmobranch assemblages from two successive Ypresian (early Eocene) facies at Marke, western Belgium. Geologica Belgica 15 (3): 146–153.

Jacquemin S.J, Ebersole J.A., Dickinson W.C. & Ciampaglio C.N. 2016. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama. PeerJ 4: e1648. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1648

Jaekel O. 1894. Die eocänen Selachier vom Monte Bolca: ein Beitrag zur Morphogenie der Wirbelthiere / von Otto Jaekel. J. Springer, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8458

Jaekel O. 1895. Unter-tertiäre Selachier aus Südrussland. Mémoirs du Comité géologique de St. Petersburg 9 (4): 19–35.

Janssen A. 2012. Validation of holoplanktonic molluscan taxa from the Oligo-Miocene of the Maltese Archipelago, introduced in violation with ICZN regulations. Cainozoic Research 9 (2): 189–191.

Johnson G.D. 1986. Scombroid phylogeny, an alternative hypothesis. Bulletin of Marine Science 39 (1): 1–41.

Johnson G.D. & Gill A.C. 1998. Perches and Their Allies. In: Paxton J.R. & Eschmeyer W.N. (eds) Encyclopedia of Fishes: 184. Academic Press, San Diego.

Jones D.E. 1967. Geology of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. A Guidebook for the 80th Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, Field Trip Number One, November 17–19, 1967: 1–113.

Jordan D.S. & Hannibal H. 1923. Fossil sharks and rays of the Pacific slope of North America. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 22: 27–63.

Kajiura S.M. & Tricas T.C. 1996. Seasonal dynamics of dental sexual dimorphism on the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina. Journal of Experimental Biology 199 (10): 2297–2306.

Kemp D.J. 1982. Fossil sharks, rays and chimaeroids of the English Tertiary Period. Gosport Museum, Hampshire.

Kemp D.J. 1985. The Selsey Division (Bracklesham Group) at Lee-on-the-Solent, Gosport, (Hants). Tertiary Research 7 (2): 35–44.

Kemp D.J., King D.A., King C. & Quayle W.J. 1979. Stratigraphy and biota of the Elmore Formation (Huntingbridge division, Bracklesham Group) at Lee-on-the-Solent, Gosport, Hampshire. Tertiary Research 2 (2): 93–103.

Kemp D.J., Kemp L. & Ward D.J. 1990. An illustrated guide to the British middle Eocene vertebrates. Privately published, London.

Kent B.W. 1999a. Part 2. Sharks from the Fisher/Sullivan Site. In: Weems R.E. (ed.) Fossil Vertebrates and Plants from the Fisher/Sullivan Site (Stafford County), a Record of Early Eocene Life in Virginia. Virginia Division of Mineral Resources 152: 11–37.

Kent B.W. 1999b. Part 3. Rays from the Fisher/Sullivan Site. In: Weems R.E. (ed.) Fossil Vertebrates and Plants from the Fisher/Sullivan Site (Stafford County), a Record of Early Eocene Life in Virginia. Virginia Division of Mineral Resources 152: 39–51.

Keyes I.W. 1972. New records of the elasmobranch C. megalodon (Agassiz) and the review of the genus Carcharodon in the New Zealand fossil record. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 15 (2): 228–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.1972.10421956

King C., Iakovleva A., Steurbaut E., Heilmann-Clausen C. & Ward D. 2013. The Aktulagay section, west Kazakhstan, a key site for northern mid-latitude early Eocene stratigraphy. Stratigraphy 10 (3): 171–209.

Klimley A.P. 2013. The Biology of Sharks and Rays. University of Chicago Press, IL.

Koken E. 1884. Uber Fischotolithen, insbesondere über diejenigen der norddeutschen Oligocänablagerungen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 36: 500–565.

Koken E. 1888. Neue Untersuchungen an tertiären Fisch-Otolithen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 40: 274–305.

Kotlyar A. 1988. Classification and distribution of fishes of the family Diretmidae (Beryciformes). Journal of Ichthyology 28 (2): 1–15.

Kriwet J. 2003. Lancetfish teeth (Neoteleostei, Alepisauroidei) from the Early Cretaceous of Alcaine, NE Spain. Lethaia 36: 323–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/00241160310006484

Kriwet J. & Benton M.J. 2004. Neoselachian (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) diversity across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 214: 118–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(04)00420-1

Kruckow T. & Thies D. 1990. Die Neoselachier der Paleokaribik (Pisces, Elasmobranchii). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 119: 1–102.

Lancaster W.C. 1986. The taphonomy of an archaeocete skeleton and its associated fauna. Proceedings of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 119–131.

Last P.R., Naylor G.J.P. & Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto B. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes, Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139 (3): 345–368. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2

Laurent Y. 2003. Les faunes de vertébrés continentaux du Maastrichtien supérieur d’Europe, systématique et biodiversité. Strata 2 (41): 1–81.

Leder R.M. 2013. Eocene Carcharhinidae and Triakidae (Elasmobranchii) of Crimea and Kazakhstan. Leipziger Geowissenschaften 20: 1–57.

Leidy J. 1856. Remarks on certain extinct species of fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8: 301–302.

Leidy J. 1876. Remarks on fossils of the Ashley Phosphate Beds. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 28: 86–87.

Leidy J. 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the Phosphate Beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8 (2): 209–261.

Leriche M. 1905. Les poissons éocènes de la Belgique. Mémoires du Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Belgique 3 (11): 49–228.

Leriche M. 1921. Sur les restes de Poissons remaniés dans le Néogène de la Belgique. Leur signification au point de vue de l’histoire géologique de la Belgique pendant le tertiaire supérieur. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologié 30: 115–120.

Leriche M. 1922. Les poissons paléocènes et éocènes du Bassin de Paris (note additionnelle). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France (Série 4) 22: 177–200.

Leriche M. 1927. Note préliminaire sur deux Scylliidés nouveaux du Paléocène de Landana (enclave portugaise de Cabinda), Congo. Revue zoologique africaine 15 (3): 398–402.

Leriche M. 1936. Les poissons du Crétacé et du Nummulitique de l’Aude. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 6: 375–402.

Leriche M. 1942. Contribution à l’étude des faunes ichthyologiques marines des terrains tertiaires de la Plaine côtière atlantique et du centre des Etats-Unis. Les synchronismes des formations tertiaires des deux côtés de l’Atlantique. Mémoires de la Société géologique de France 45 (2–4): 1–110.

Li G.-Q. 1997. Elasmobranchs from the lower Tertiary of the western Tarim Basin, China, and their biostratigraphic significance. Palaeoworld 7: 107–136.

Li G.-Q. & Wilson M.V.H. 1996. The discovery of Heterotidinae (Teleostei: Osteoglossidae) from the Paleocene Paskapoo Formation of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16 (2): 198–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1996.10011308

Lillegraven J.A. & Eberle J.J. 1999. Vertebrate faunal changes through Lancian and Puercan time in southern Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology 73 (4): 691–710. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022336000032510

Lim D.D., Motta P.J., Mara K. & Martin A.P. 2010. Phylogeny of hammerhead sharks (Family Sphyrnidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55 (2): 572–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.037

Lin C-H. 2018. Establishing relationships of fossil otoliths through geometric morphometrics: a case study of sciaenid otoliths from the Eocene Gulf Coast. Sixth International Otolith Symposium (poster presentation), Keelung, Taiwan.

Lin C-H., Girone A. & Nolf D. 2016. Fish otolith assemblages from Recent NE Atlantic sea bottoms: A comparative study of palaeoecology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 446: 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.01.022

Lombarte A., Chic Ò., Parisi-Baradad V., Olivella R., Piera J. & García-Ladona E. 2006. A web-based environment from shape analysis of fish otoliths. The AFORO database. Scientia Marina 70: 147–152.

Long D.J. 1992. Sharks from the La Meseta Formation (Eocene), Seymour Island, Antarctica Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12 (1): 11–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1992.10011428

Longbottom A.E. 1984. New Tertiary pycnodonts from the Tilemsi valley, Republic of Mali. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology) 38 (1): 1–26.

López J.A., Ryburn J.A., Fedrigo O. & Naylor G.J.P. 2006. Phylogeny of sharks of the family Triakidae (Carcharhiniformes) and its implications for the evolution of carcharhiniform placental viviparity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 50–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.011

Lucifora L.O., Garcia V.B., Menni R.C. & Escalante A.H. 2006. Food habits, selectivity, and foraging modes of the school shark Galeorhinus galeus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 315: 259–270. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps315259

Maisch H.M., Becker M.A., Raines B.W. & Chamberlain J.A. 2014. Chondrichthyans from the Lisbon–Tallahatta Formation Contact (middle Eocene), Choctaw County, Silas, Alabama. Paludicola 9 (4): 183–209.

Maisch H.M., Becker M.A., Raines B.W. & Chamberlain J.A. 2016. Osteichthyans from the Tallahatta–Lisbon Formation Contact (middle Eocene– Lutetian) Pigeon Creek, Conecuh-Covington counties, Alabama with comments on Transatlantic occurrences in the Northern Atlantic Ocean basin. PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 13 (3): 1–22.

Malyshkina T.P. 2006. Late Eocene scyliorhinid sharks from the Trans-Urals, Russia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (3): 465–475.

Malyshkina T.P. & Ward D.J. 2016. The Turanian Basin in the Eocene, the new data on the fossil sharks and rays from the Kyzylkum Desert (Uzbekistan). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences 320 (1): 50–65.

Mancini E.A. 1989. Section 4, Regional Paleogene stratigraphy and biostratigraphy. In: Mancini E.A., Russell E.E., Dockery D.T., Reinhardt J., Smith C.C., Baum G., Gibson T., Jones D. & Tew B. (eds) Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Memphis, Tennessee to Atlanta, Georgia, July 20–30, 1989: 11–17. American Geophysical Union Field Trip Guidebook 372.

Mancini E.A. 2008. Paleogene lowstand systems tract sand deposits of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, potential reservoir facies in the offshore Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 58: 669–675.

Mancini E.A. & Tew B.H. 1990. Tertiary sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of Southwestern Alabama. A Guidebook for Field Trip 1, 39th Annual Meeting, Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 1–51.

Mancini E.A. & Tew B.H. 1991. Relationships of Paleogene stage and planktonic foraminiferal zone boundaries to lithostratigraphic and allostratigraphic contacts in the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 21 (1): 48–66. https://doi.org/10.2113/gsjfr.21.1.48

Mancini E.A. & Tew B.H. 1995. Geochronology, biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of a marginal marine to marine shelf stratigraphic succession, upper Paleocene and lower Eocene, Wilcox Group, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, USA. In: Berggren W.A., Kent D.V., Aubry M.P. & Hardenbol J. (eds) Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 54: 281–293. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.95.04.0281

Manning E.M. 2003. The Eocene/Oligocene transition in marine vertebrates of the Gulf Coastal Plain. In: Prothro D.R., Ivany L.C. & Nesbitt, E.A. (eds) From Greenhouse to Icehouse: The Marine Eocene-Oligocene Transition: 366–385. Columbia University Press, New York.

Manning E.M. & Standhardt B.R. 1986. Late Eocene sharks and rays of Montgomery Landing, Louisiana. In: Schiebout J.A. & van den Bold W. (eds) Montgomery Landing Site, Marine Eocene (Jackson) of Central Louisiana: 133–161. Symposium Proceedings, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, Baton Rouge.

Marrama G., Carnevale G. & Kriwet J. 2018. New observations on the anatomy and paleobiology of the Eocene requiem shark †Eogaleus bolcensis (Carcharhiniformes, Carcharhinidae) from Bolca Lagerstätte, Italy. Comptes Rendus Palevol 17: 443–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2018.04.005

Marshall L.G., de Muizon C. & Sigé B. 1983. Late Cretaceous mammals (Marsupalia) from Bolivia. Géobios 16 (6): 739–745. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(83)80090-4

Martill D., Ibrahim M.N., Brito P.M., Baider L., Zhouri S., Loveridge R., Naish D. & Hing R. 2011. A new Plattenkalk Konservat Lagerstätte in the Upper Cretaceous of Gara Sbaa, south-eastern Morocco. Cretaceous Research 32: 433–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2011.01.005

McEachran J. & Fechhelm J. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico (Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes). University of Texas Press, Austin.

McEachran J. & Fechhelm J. 2005. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico (Volume 2: Scorpaeniformes to Tetraodontiformes). University of Texas Press, Austin.

Mendiola C. 1999. Myliobatoideos nuevos (Neoselachii, Batomorphii) del Thanetiense de Oed Zem (Cuenca de los Ouled Abdoun, Marruecos). Revista de la Societat Paleontologica d’Elx 6: 1–42.

Monsch K.A. 2000. A new fossil bonito (Sardini, Teleostei) from the Eocene of England and the Caucasus, and evolution of tail region characters of its recent relatives. Paleontological Research 4 (1): 75–80.

Monsch K.A. 2005. Revision of the scombroid fishes from the Cenozoic of England. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 95: 445–489. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0263593300001164

Moody R.T.J. & Suttcliffe P.J.C. 1991. The Cretaceous deposits of the Iullemmeden Basin of Niger, central West Africa. Cretaceous Research 12: 137–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6671(05)80021-7

Moore J. 1993. Phylogeny of the Trachichthyiformes (Teleostei: Percomorpha). Bulletin of Marine Science 52 (1): 114–136.

Moore J. 2016. Diretmidae, Spinyfins. In: Carpenter K. & De Angelis N. (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3: Bony Fishes Part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes): 2185–2186. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Müller A. 1999. Ichthyofaunen aus dem atlantischen Tertiär der USA. Leipziger Geowissenschaften 9–10: 1–360.

Münster G.G. 1846. Ueber die in der Tertiär-Formation des Wiener Beckens vorkommenden Fisch-Ueberreste, mit Beschreibung einiger neuen merkwürdigen Arten. Beiträge zur Petrefactenkunde 7: 1–31.

Murray A.M. & Thewissen J.G.M. 2008. Eocene actinopterygian fishes from Pakistan, with a description of a new genus and species of channid (Channiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (14): 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28%5B41:EAFFPW%5D2.0.CO;2

Murray A.M., Cook T.D., Attia Y.S., Chatrath P. & Simons E.L. 2010. A freshwater ichthyofauna from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Fayum, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (3): 665–680. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724631003758060

Mustafa H.A. & Zalmout I.S. 2002. Elasmobranchs from the late Eocene Wadi Esh-Shallala Formation of Qa’Faydat and Dahikiya, east Jordan. Tertiary Research 21 (1–4): 77–94.

Mustafa H.A., Zalmout I.S., Smadi A.A. & Nazzal I. 2005. Review of the middle Eocene (Lutetian) selachian fauna of Jebal eth Thuleithuwat, east Jordan. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 237 (3): 399–422. https://doi.org/10.1127/njgpa/237/2005/399

Naylor G.J.P., Caira J.N., Jensen K., Rosana K.A.M., Straube N. & Lakner C. 2012. Elasmobranch phylogeny, a mitochondrial estimate based on 595 Species. In: Carrier J.C., Musick J.A. & Heithaus R.M. (eds) Biology of Sharks and their Relatives, Edition 2: 31–56. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Nelson J.S., Grande T.C. & Wilson M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the World, 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.

Nielsen J.G., Cohen D.M., Markle D.F. & Robins C.R. 1999. FAO Species Catalogue: Ophidiiform fishes of the World (Order Ophidiiformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125 (18): 1–178.

Nishimoto H. & Ohe F. 1982. Teeth of fossil Sphyraena of the Miocene Mizunami Group, Central Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 9: 85–102.

Nolf D. 1972. Sur la faune ichthyologique des formations du Panisel et de Den Hoorn (Eocène belge). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologié, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 81 (1): 111–138.

Nolf D. 1974. Sur les otolithes des Sables de Grimmertingen (Oligocène inférieur de Belgique). Bulletin Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Sciences de la terre 11: 1–22.

Nolf D. 1980. Étude monographique des otolithes des Ophidiiformes actuels et révision des espèces fossiles (Pisces, Teleostei). Mededelingen van de Werkgroep voor Tertiaire en Kwartaire Geologie 17 (2): 71–195.

Nolf D. 1985. Otolithi Piscium. In: Schultze H. (ed.) Handbook of Palaeoichthyology Volume 10: 1–145. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Nolf D. 1986. Haaie- en Roggetanden uit het Tertiair van België. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels.

Nolf D. 1988. Fossiles de Belgique: dents de requins et de raies du Tertiaire de la Belgique. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels.

Nolf D. 1995. Studies on fossil otoliths – the state of the art. In: Secor D., Dean J. & Campana S. (eds) Recent Developments in Fish Otolith Research: 513–544. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.

Nolf D. 2003. Revision of the American otolith-based fish species described by Koken in 1888. Louisiana Geological Survey, Geological Pamphlet 12: 1–20.

Nolf D. 2013. The Diversity of Fish Otoliths, Past and Present. Operational directorate “Earth and History of Life” of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels.

Nolf D. & Brzobohaty R. 1992. Fish otoliths as paleobathymetric indicators. Paleontologica et Evolucio 24–25: 255–264.

Nolf D. & Dockery D. 1990. Fish otoliths from the Coffee Sand (Campanian) of northeastern Mississippi. Mississippi Geology 10: 1–14.

Nolf D. & Stringer G. 2003. Late Eocene (Priabonian) fish otoliths from the Yazoo Clay at Copenhagen, Louisiana. Louisiana Geological Survey Geological Pamphlet 13: 1–23.

Nolf D., Rana R.S. & Singh H. 2006. Fish otoliths from the Ypresian (early Eocene) of Vastan, Gujarat, India. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre 76: 105–118.

Noubhani A. & Cappetta H. 1992. Èvolution de la taille et de la morphologie des dents dans deux lignées de sélaciens: application biostratigraphique. Tertiary Research 14 (1): 1–18.

Noubhani A. & Cappetta H. 1997. Les Orectolobiformes, Carcharhiniformes et Myliobatiformes (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii) des Bassins à phosphates du Maroc (Maastrichtien-Lutétien basal). Systématique, biostratigraphie, évolution et dynamique des faunes. Palaeo Ichthyologica 8: 1–327.

Nyberg K.G., Ciampagalio C.N. & Wray G.A. 2006. Tracing the ancestry of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (4): 806–814. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26%5B806:TTAOTG%5D2.0.CO;2

Otero O., Pinton A., Cappetta H., Adnet S;, Valentin X., Salem M. & Jaeger J.-J. 2015. A fish assemblage from the middle Eocene from Libya (Dur at-Talah) and the earliest record of modern African fish genera. PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0144358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144358

Owen R. 1845. Odontography. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 6 (11): 138.

Page L.M & Burr B.M. 2011. Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York.

Page L.M., Espinosa-Pérez H., Findley Z., Gilbert C., Lea R., Mandrak N., Mayden R. & Nelson J. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 34: 1–384.

Palmer K.V.W. 1939. Basilosaurus in Arkansas. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 23 (8): 1128–1129.

Pandey D.K., Chaskar K. & Case G.R. 2018. Two fossil shark teeth from lower Eocene shales of the Khuiala Formation, Jaisalmer Basin, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 63 (2): 155–161.

Parmley D. & Cicimurri D.J. 2003. Late Eocene sharks of the Hardie Mine local fauna of Wilkinson County, Georgia. Georgia Journal of Science 61 (3): 153–179.

Parris D.C., Grandstaff B.S. & Bell G.L. Jr. 2001. Reassessment of the affinities of the extinct genus Cylindracanthus (Osteichthyes). Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 80: 161–172.

Paul D.E. 2005. Studii paleoambientale informatiumile Paleogene din NV-UL depresiunii Transilvaniei Pe Baza acociatilor ihtiologice. Revista de Politica Stiintei si Scientometrie, Numar Special 2005: 1–77.

Pedroni P.M. 1844. Mémoire sur les poissons fossiles du département de la Gironde. Actes de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux 13: 277–298.

Pimiento C., Ehret D.J., MacFadden B.J. & Hubbell G. 2010. Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PLoS ONE 5 (5): e10552.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010552

Pimiento C., González-Barba G., Hendy A.J.W., Jaramillo C., MacFadden B.J., Montes C., Suarez S.C. & Shippritt M. 2013. Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: a window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 42: 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2012.11.005

Pittman J.G. 1984. Geology of the De Queen Formation of Arkansas. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 34: 201–209.

Poll M. 1953. Poissons III, Téléostéens malacoptérygiens. Resultats scientifiques de l’Expédition océanographique belge dans les Eaux côtières africaines de l’Atlantique sud 4 (2): 1–250.

Poll M. 1954. Poissons IV, Téléostéens acanthoptérygiens (premiere partie). Resultats scientifiques de l’Expédition océanographique belge dans les Eaux côtières africaines de l’Atlantique sud 4 (3a): 1–300.

Poll M. 1959. Poissons V, Teleosteens acanthopterigiens (deuxieme partie). Resultats scientifiques de l’Expédition océanographique belge dans les Eaux côtières africaines de l’Atlantique sud 4 (3b): 1–417.

Pomerol C. 1973. Stratigraphie et paléogéographie. Ère cénozoique (Tertiaire et Quaternaire). Éditoire Doin, Paris.

Posthumus O. 1924. Otolithi piscium. In: Diener C. (ed.) Fossilium Catalogus I, Pars 24, Animalia. W. Junk, Berlin.

Priem M.F. 1901. Sur les poissons de l’Eocène inférieur des environs de Reims. Bulletin de Société géologique de France (Serie 4) 1: 477–504.

Priem M.F. 1905. Sur les poissons fossiles de l’Eocène moyen d’Egypte. Bulletin de Société géologique de France (Serie 4) 5: 633–641.

Priem M.F. 1908. Étude des poissons fossiles du Bassin parisien. Masson et Cie, Paris.

Purdy R.W. 1998. Chondrichthyan fishes from the Paleocene of South Carolina. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 88 (4): 122–146. https://doi.org/10.2307/1006671

Purdy R.W. & Francis M.P. 2007. Ontogenetic development of teeth in Lamna nasus (Bonaterre, 1758) (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) and its implications for the study of fossil shark teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (4): 798–810.

Purdy R.W., Schneider V.P., Applegate S.P., McLellan J.H., Meyer R.L. & Slaughter R. 2001. The Neogene sharks, rays, and bony fishes from Lee Creek Mine, Aurora, North Carolina. In: Ray C.E. & Bohaska D.J. (eds) Geology and Paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, III. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 90: 71–202. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810266.90.1

Radier H. 1959. Contribution à l’étude géologique du Soudan oriental (A.O.F.). Bulletin du Service de géologie et de Prospection minière 26: 1–556.

Rana R.S. 1990. Palaeontology and palaeoecology of the Intertrappean (Cretaceous-Tertiary transition) beds of the peninsular India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 35: 105–120.

Raymond D.E., Osborne W.E., Copeland C.W. & Neathery T.L. 1988. Alabama stratigraphy. Geological Survey of Alabama Circular 140: 1–97.

Rey J. 1972. Recherches géologiques sur le Crétacé inférieur de l’Estremadura (Portugal). Serviços Geologicos de Portugal 21: 1–477.

Robb A.J. 2006. Middle Eocene shark and ray fossils of Texas. The Backbender’s Gazette November 2006: 9–13.

Robins C.R. & Ray C.R. 1999. A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Rose K.D., Smith T., Rana R.S., Sahni A., Sing H., Missiaen P. & Folie A. 2006. Early Eocene (Ypresian) continental vertebrate assemblage from India, with description of a new anthracobunid (Mammalia, Tethytheria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (1): 219–225. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26%5B219:EEYCVA%5D2.0.CO;2

Rosen D.E. & Greenwood P.H. 1970. Origin of the Weberian apparatus and the relationships of the ostariophysan and gonorynchiform fishes. American Museum Novitates 2428: 1–25.

Rossi-Wongtschowski C., Siliprandi C., Brenha M., Gonsales S., Santificetur C. & Vaz-dos-Santos A. 2014. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae) of Southeastern – Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae); Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae). Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 62: 1–103. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-875920140637062sp1

Sahni A. & Mehrotra D.K. 1981. The elasmobranch fauna of coastal Miocene sediments of peninsular India. Biological Memoirs Lucknow 5 (2): 83–121.

Samonds K.E., Andrianavalona T.H., Wallett L.A., Zalmout I.S. & Ward D.J. 2019. A middle – late Eocene neoselachian assemblage from nearshore marine deposits, Mahajanga Basin, northwestern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 14 (2): e0211789. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211789

Santini F., Carnevale G. & Sorenson L. 2015. First timetree of Sphyraenidae (Percomorpha) reveals a middle Eocene crown age and an Oligo–Miocene radiation of barracudas. Italian Journal of Zoology 82 (1): 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2014.962630

Savrda C.E., Counts J.W., Bigham E. & Martin S. 2010. Ichnology of siliceous facies in the Eocene Tallahatta Formation (Eastern United States Gulf Coastal Plain), implications for depositional conditions, storm processes, and diagenesis. Palaios 25: 642–655. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2010.p10-054r

Schein J.P., Grandstaff B.S., Gallagher W.B., Poole J.C. & Lacovara K.J. 2011. Paralbula in North America, revisiting and enigmatic Campanian – late Paleocene Teleost with hope for new insights. The Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 43 (1): 87.

Schultz J.K., Feldheim K.A., Gruber S.H., Ashley M.V., McGovern T.M. & Bowen B.W. 2008. Global phylogeography and seascape genetics of the lemon sharks (genus Negaprion). Molecular Ecology 17 (24): 5336–5348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04000.x

Schultz O. 2004. A triggerfish (Osteichthyes: Balistidae: Balistes) from the Badenian (middle Miocene) of the Vienna and the Styrian Basin (Central Paratethys). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 106A: 345–369.

Schultz O. 2006. Oligodiodon, a porcupinefish from the middle Miocene (Badenian) of Stryia, Austria (Osteichthyes, Diodontidae). Joannea Geologie Paläontologie 8: 25–46.

Schwarzhans W. 1981. Vergleichende morphologische Untersuchungen an rezenten und fossilen Otolithen der Ordnung Ophidiiformes. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A) 32: 63–122.

Schwarzhans W. 1993. A comparative morphological treatise of recent and fossil otoliths of the family Sciaenidae (Perciformes). In: Pfeil F. (ed.) Piscium Catalogus, Otolithi Piscium: 1–245. Verlag Dr. Freidrich Pfeil, Munich.

Schwarzhans W. 1999. A comparative morphological treatise of recent and fossil otoliths of the order Pleuronectiformes. In: Pfeil F. (ed.) Piscium Catalogus, Otolithi Piscium: 1–391. Verlag Dr. Freidrich Pfeil, Munich.

Schwarzhans W. 2003. Fish otoliths from the Paleocene of Denmark. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 2: 1–94.

Schwarzhans W. 2012. Fish otoliths from the Paleocene of Bavaria (Kressenberg) and Austria (Kroisbach and Oiching-Graben). Palaeo Ichthyologica 12: 1–88.

Schwarzhans W. 2013a. Otoliths from dredges in the Gulf of Guinea and off the Azores – an actuo-paleontological case study. Palaeo Ichthyologica 13: 7–40.

Schwarzhans W. 2013b. A comparative morphological study of the Recent otoliths of the genera Diaphus, Idiolychnus, and Lobianchia (Myctophidae). Palaeo Ichthyologica 13: 41–82.

Schwarzhans W. & Bratishko A. 2011. The otoliths from the middle Paleocene of Luzanivka (Cherkasy District, Ukraine). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 261: 83–110.

Sharma K.M. & Patnaik R. 2013. Additional fossil batoids (skates and rays) from the Miocene deposits of Baripada Beds, Mayurbhanj District, Orissa, India. Earth Science India 6 (4): 160–184.

Siverson M. 1992. Biology, dental morphology, and taxonomy of lamniform sharks from the Campanian of the Kristianstad Basin, Sweden. Palaeontology 35 (3): 519–5.

Siverson M. 1995. Revision of the Danian cow sharks, sand tiger sharks, and goblin sharks (Hexanchidae, Odontaspididae, and Mitsukurinidae) from southern Sweden. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 (1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1995.10011203

Siverson M. 1999. A new large lamniform shark from the uppermost Gearle Siltstone (Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous) of Western Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 90: 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0263593300002509

Siverson M., Lindgren J., Newbrey M.G., Cederström P. & Cook T.D. 2015. Cenomanian–Campanian (Late Cretaceous) mid-palaeolatitude sharks of Cretalamna appendiculata type. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60 (2): 339–384. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2012.0137

Slaughter B.H. & Springer S. 1968. Replacement of rostral teeth in sawfishes and sawsharks. Copeia 3: 499–506.

Smale M., Watson G. & Hecht T. 1995. Otolith atlas of southern African marine fishes. Ichthyological Monographs of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 1: 1–253. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.141860

Smith D.G. 1989. Family Congridae. In: Böhlke E.B. (ed.) Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Part 9: 460–567. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven.

Smith D.G. & Kanazawa R. 1977. Eight new species and a new genus of congird eels from the western North Atlantic with redescriptions of Ariosoma analis, Hildebrandia guppyi and Rhechias vicinalis. Bulletin of Marine Science 27: 530–543.

Smith D.G., Irmak E. & Özen Ö. 2012. A redescription of the eel Panturichthys fowleri (Anguilliformes: Heterenchelyidae), with a synopsis of the Heterenchelyidae. Copeia 2012 (3): 484–493. https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-11-174

Smith E.A. & Johnson L.C. 1887. Tertiary and Cretaceous strata of the Tuscaloosa, Tombigbee, and Alabama Rivers. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 43: 1–189.

Snyder D. & Burgess G. 2016. Marine Fishes of Florida. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Springer V.G. 1964. A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera Scoliodon, Loxodon, and Rhizoprio-nodon. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115 (3493): 559–632.

Stinton F. 1975. Fish otoliths from the English Eocene (part 1). Palaeontographical Society Monograph 544: 1–56.

Stinton F. 1977. Fish otoliths from the English Eocene (part 2). The Palaeontographical Society, Monograph 548: 57–126.

Stinton F. 1978. Fish otoliths from the English Eocene (part 3). The Palaeontographical Society Monograph 555: 127–189.

Storms R. 1892. Sur le Cybium (Enchodus) bleekeri du terrain bruxellien. Mémoires de la Société belge, de Géologié, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 6: 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S001675680016385X

Storms R. 1894. Troisième note sur les poissons du terrain rupélien. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologié, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 8: 67–82.

Storms R. 1897. Sur un Cybium nouveau du terrain bruxellien (C. proosti). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 9: 160–162.

Stringer G.L. 1977. A Study of the Upper Eocene Otoliths and Related Fauna of the Yazoo Clay in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. Master’s thesis, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana.

Stringer G.L. 1979. A study of the upper Eocene otoliths of the Yazoo Clay in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. Tulane Studies in Geology and Paleontology 15: 95–105.

Stringer G.L. 1986. Teleostean otoliths and their paleoecological implications at the Montgomery Landing Site. In: Schiebout J.A. & van den Bold W.A. (eds) Montgomery Landing Site, Marine Eocene (Jackson) of Central Louisiana: 209–222. Proceedings of a Symposium, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, Baton Rouge.

Stringer G.L. 1992. Late Pleistocene–early Holocene teleostean otoliths from a Mississippi River mudlump. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12: 33–41.

Stringer G.L. 2001. Rare bony and cartilaginous fossil fishes from the upper Eocene of Louisiana. The Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Abstract.

Stringer G.L. 2016. Evidence and implications of marine invertebrate settlement on Eocene otoliths from the Moodys Branch Formation of Montgomery Landing (Louisiana, USA). Cainozoic Research 16 (1): 3–12.

Stringer G.L. & Breard S. 1997. Comparison of otolith-based paleoecology to other fossil groups: an example from the Cane River Formation (Eocene) of Louisiana. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 47: 563–570.

Stringer G.L. & King L. 2012. Late Eocene shark coprolites from the Yazoo Clay in northeastern Louisiana. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 57: 275–310.

Stringer G.L. & Miller M. 2001. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on vertebrate fossil assemblages: an example of their utilization in the Gulf Coast. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 51: 329–338.

Stringer G.L. & Sloan C. 2018. Significance of early Paleocene fish otoliths from two Clayton Formation (Danian) sites in central Arkansas. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 50. https://doi.org/10.1130/abs/2018SC-309895

Stringer G.L., Breard S.Q. & Kontrovitz M. 2001. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of diagnostic invertebrates and vertebrates from the type locality of the Oligocene Rosefield Marl Beds, Louisiana. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 51: 321–328.

Stringer G.L., Cicimurri D.J. & Parmley D. 2013. Bony fishes based on otoliths from the Eocene Clinchfield Formation, central Georgia: initial findings. The Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences, Abstract.

Stringer G.L., Clements D., Sadorf E. & Shannon K. 2018. First description and significance of Cretaceous teleostean otoliths (Tar Heel Formation, Campanian) from North Carolina. Eastern Paleontologist 1: 1–22.

Stromer E. 1905a. Die Fischreste des Mittleren und Oberen Eocäns von Ägypten. I. Teil, Die Selachier, A. Myliobatiden und Pristiden. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns 18: 37–58.

Stromer E. 1905b. Die Fischreste des Mittleren und Oberen Eocäns von Ägypten. I. Teil, Selachii, B. Squaloidei und II. Teil, Teleostomi, A. Ganoidei. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns 18: 163–185.

Stromer E. 1910. Reptilien und Fischreste aus dem marinen Alttertiär von Südtogo (West Africa). Monatsbericht der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 62 (7): 478–505.

Suraru N. & Suraru M. 1987. Neue Angaben über einige Fischreste aus dem Eozän des Transylvanischen Beckens. In: The Eocene from the Transylvanian Basin, Special Issue: 127–134. Cluj-Napoca.

Tabuce R., Adnet S., Cappetta H., Noubhani A. & Quillevere F. 2005. Aznag (bassin d’Ouarzazate, Maroc), nouvelle localité à sélaciens et mammifères de l’Eocène moyen (Lutétien) d’Afrique. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 176 (4): 381–400. https://doi.org/10.2113/​176.4.381

Tanaka T., Fujita Y. & Morinobu S. 2006. Fossil shark teeth from the Namigata Formation in Ibara City, Okayama Prefecture, Central Japan and their biostratigraphical significance. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum 33: 103–109.

Tavani G. 1955. Observazioni su alcuni plectognathi (Gymnodonti). Atti dellaSocieta` Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A 62: 176–200.

Tavera, J., Acero P., Balart E. & Bernardi G. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12 (57). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-12-57

Taverne L. 2009. Ridgewoodichthys, a new genus for Brychaetus caheni from the marine Paleocene of Cabinda (Africa): re-description and comments on its relationships within the Osteoglossidae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha). Bulletin de L’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 79: 147–153.

Taverne L. & Nolf D. 1978. Troisième note sur les poissons des Sables de Lede (Eocène belge): Les fossiles autres que les otolithes. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologié 87 (3): 125–152.

Thomas H., Roger J., Pickford M., Gheerbrant E., Al-Sulaimani Z. & Al-Busaidi S. 1999. Oligocene-Miocene terrestrial vertebrates in the southern Arabian Peninsula (Sultanate of Oman) and their geodynamic and palaeogeographic settings. In: Whybrow P.J. & Hill A. (eds) Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia: 430–442. Yale University, New Haven.

Thurmond J.T. & Jones D.E. 1981. Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Toulmin L.D. 1977. Stratigraphic distribution of Paleocene and Eocene Fossils in the Eastern Gulf Coast Region. Geological Survey of Alabama Monograph 13: 1–602.

Tracey S. 2014. Notes on Nolf’s nomenclatural system. Cainozoic Research 14 (1): 71–72.

Tuomey M. 1850. First Biennial Report on the Geology of Alabama. D.J. Slade, Tuscaloosa.

Tuomey M. 1858. Second Biennial Report on the Geology of Alabama. N.B. Cloud, State Printer, Montgomery.

Tyler J.C. 1975. A new species of boxfish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy, the first unquestionable fossil record of the Ostraciontidae. Studi e Ricerche sui Giacimenti Terziari di Bolca, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale de Verona, Miscellanea Paleontologica 2: 103–126.

Tyler J.C. 1980. Osteology, phylogeny and higher classification of the fishes of the Order Plectognathi (Tetraodontiformes). NOAA Technical report NMFS 434: 1–422. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.63022

Tyler J.C. & Gregorova R. 1991. New genus and species of boxfish (Tetraodontiformes, Ostraciidae) from the Oligocene of Moravia, the second fossil representative of the family. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 71: 1–20. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810266.71.1

Tyler J.C. & Santini F. 2002. Review and reconstructions of the tetraodontiform fishes from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy, with comments on related Tertiary taxa. Studi e Ricerche sui Giacimenti Terziari di Bolca, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale de Verona 9: 47–119.

Uhen M.D. 2008. New protocetid whales from Alabama and Mississippi, and a new cetacean clade, Pelageceti. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (3): 589–593. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[589:NPWFAA]2.0.CO;2

Underwood C.J. & Gunter G.C. 2012. The shark Carcharhinus sp. from the middle Eocene of Jamaica and the Eocene record of Carcharhinus. Caribbean Journal of Earth Science 44: 25–30.

Underwood C.J., Ward D.J., King C., Antar S.M., Zalmout I.S. & Gingerich P.D., 2011. Shark and ray faunas in the middle and late Eocene of the Fayum Area, Egypt. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 122 (1): 47–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2010.09.004

Underwood C.J., Kolmann M.A. & Ward D.J. 2017. Paleogene origin of planktivory in the Batoidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 37 (3): e1293068. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2017.1293068

Valenciennes A. 1833. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome neuvième. Suite du livre neuvième. des Scombéroïdes 9: 1–512. Levrault, Paris. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7339

Van den Eeckhaut G. & De Schutter P. 2009. The elasmobranch fauna of the Lede Sand Formation at Oosterzele (Lutetian, middle Eocene of Belgium). Palaeofocus 1: 1–57.

Van der Laan R., Eschmeyer W. & Fricke R. 2014. Family-group names of Recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882 (2): 1–230. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1

Van der Laan R., Eschmeyer W. & Fricke R. 2017. Addenda to family-group names of Recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882 (2): 1–5.

Van der Laan R., Eschmeyer W. & Fricke R. 2018. Addenda to family-group names of Recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882 (2): 1–7.

Vasquez S. & Pimiento C. 2014. Sharks and rays from the Tonosi Formation (Eocene of Panamá). Revista Geológica de América Central 51: 165–169.

Voigt M. & Weber D. 2011. Field Guide for Sharks of the Genus Carcharhinus. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.

Von der Hocht F. 1979. Eine Lagerstätte kreidezeitlicher und paläogener Chondrichthyes-Reste bei Fürstenau (Niedersachsen). Osnabrücker naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen 6: 35–44.

Von der Hocht F. 1986. Stand der Untersuchungen an der Chondrichthyes-Fauna des nordwestdeutschen Tertiärs. Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde 18: 503–509.

Ward D.J. 1979. Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene. 2. A new species of Dasyatis (sting ray) from the London Clay (Eocene) of Essex, England. Tertiary Research 2 (2): 75–81.

Ward D.J. 1980. The distribution of sharks, rays and chimaeroids in the English Palaeogene. Tertiary Research 3 (1): 13–19.

Ward D.J. 1988. Hypotodus verticalis (Agassiz, 1843), Hypotodus robustus (Leriche, 1921) and Hypodus heinzelini (Casier, 1967), Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes, junior synonyms of Carcharias hopei (Agassiz, 1843). Tertiary Research 10 (1): 1–12.

Ward D.J. 2010. Sharks and rays. In: Young J.R., Gale A.S., Knght R.I. & & Smith A.B. (eds) Field Guide to Fossils Number 12: Fossils of the Gault Clay. The Palaeontological Association, London 1–342. https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.1260

Ward D.J. & Wiest R.L. 1990. A checklist of Palaeocene and Eocene sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes) from the Pamunkey Group, Maryland and Virginia, USA. Tertiary Research 12 (2): 81–88.

Weems R. 1998. Actinopterygian fish remains from the Paleocene of South Carolina. In: Sanders A.E. (ed.) Paleobiology of the Williamsburg Formation (Black Mingo Group; Paleocene of South Carolina, USA.). Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 88 (4): 147–164.

Weems R. 1999. Actinopterygian fishes from the Fisher/Sullivan Site. In: Weems R. & Grimsley G. (eds) Early Eocene vertebrates and plants from The Fisher/Sullivan Site (Nanjemoy Formation) Stafford County, Virginia. Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 152: 53–100.

Weems R. & Horman S. 1983. Teleost fish remains (Osteoglossidae, Blochiidae, Scombridae, Triodontidae, Diodontidae) from the lower Eocene Nanjemoy Formation of Maryland. Proceedings of The Biological Society of Washington 96 (1): 38–49.

Weiler W. 1929. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. V. Tertiäre Wirbeltiere. 3. Die Mittel-und obereocäne Fischfauna Ägyptens mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Teleostomie. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge 1: 1–57.

Welton B.J. & Zinsmeister W.J. 1980. Eocene Neoselachians from the Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum 329: 1–10.

Westgate J.W. 1984. Lower vertebrates from the late Eocene Crow Creek local fauna, St. Francis County, Arkansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4 (4): 536–546. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1984.10012029

Westgate J.W. 1989. Lower vertebrates from an estuarine facies of the middle Eocene Laredo Formation (Claiborne Group), Webb County, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9 (3): 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1989.10011763

Westgate J.W. 2001. Chapter 11, Paleoecology and biostratigraphy of marginal marine Gulf Coast Eocene vertebrate localities. In: Grunnell G.F. (ed) Eocene Biodiversity, Unusual Occurrences and Rarely Sampled Habitats: 263–297. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York.

Westgate J.W. 2012. Palaeoecology of a primate-friendly, middle Eocene community from Laredo, Texas and a review of stratigraphic occurrences of Paleogene land mammals across the Gulf Coastal Plain, USA. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 92 (4): 497–505.

White E.I. 1926. Eocene fishes from Nigeria. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 10: 1–82. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a100500

White E.I. 1931. The Vertebrate Faunas of the English Eocene: Vol. 1. From the Thanet Sands to the Basement Bed of the London Clay. British Museum (Natural History), London. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800095820

White E.I. 1955. Notes on African Tertiary sharks. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Nigeria 5 (3): 319–325.

White E.I. 1956. The Eocene fishes of Alabama. Bulletins of American Paleontology 36 (156): 123–150.

White W.T. 2014. A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera. Zootaxa 3860 (2): 149–166. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3860.2.3

Wiley E. 1976. The phylogeny and biogeography of fossil and recent gars (Actinopterygii, Lepisosteidae). Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas Miscellaneous Publication 64: 1–111.

Wiley E. & Johnson G. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. In: Nelson J., Schultze H.-P., Wilson M. (eds) Origin and Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Teleosts: 123–182. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.

Winkler T.C. 1874a. Mémoire sur des dents de poissons du terrain bruxellien. Archives du Musée Teyler 3 (4): 285–304.

Winkler T.C. 1874b. Deuxième mémoire sur des dents de poissons du terrain Bruxellien. Archives du Musée Teyler 4 (1): 16–48.

Winkler T.C. 1876. Deuxième mémoire sur des dents de poissons fossiles du terrain Bruxellien. Archives du Musée Teyler 4 (1): 16–48.

Winterbottom R. & Tyler J. 1983. Phylogenetic relationships of Aracanin genera of boxfishes (Ostraciidae: Tetraodontiformes). Copeia 1983 (4): 902–917. https://doi.org/10.2307/1445092

Woodward A.S. 1888. On the Cretaceous selachian genus Synechodus. Geological Magazine, decade 3, 5: 496–499. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800182767

Woodward A.S. 1889. Catalogue of the Fossil Fishes in the British Museum. Part. I. British Museum (Natural History), London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.61854

Woodward A.S. 1893. LIX.– Description of the skull of Pisodus oweni, and Albula-like fish of the Eocene period. Annals and Magazine of Natural History series 6 11: 357–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939308677540

Woodward A.S. 1899. Notes on the teeth of sharks and skates from English Eocene formations. Procee-dings of the Geologists’ Association 16 (1): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7878(99)80036-4

Woodward A.S. 1901. Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British Museum (Natural History), Part IV. British Museum (Natural History), London. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.61854

Yarkov A.A. & Popov E.V. 1998. [A new chondrichthyan fauna from the Beriozovaya beds (lower Paleocene) of the Volgograd Volga River Basin, preliminary data]. Vopr. paleontologii i stratigrafii 1998 (1): 59–65. [In Russian.]

Zalmout I.S., Antar S.M., Abd-El Shafy E., Metwally M.H., Hatab E.-B.E. & Gingerich P.D. 2012. Priabonian sharks and rays (late Eocene, Neoselachii) from Minqar Tabaghbagh in the Western Qattara Depression, Egypt. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 32 (6): 71–90.

Zharkov M.P., Glikman L.S. & Kaplan A.A. 1976. [On the age of the Paleogene of Kaliningrad region]. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Science, Geological Series 1: 132–134. [In Russian.]

Zhelezko V.I. 1994. Sharks of the family Jaekelotodontidae of European and middle Asian paleobiogeographic provinces. Bulletin Moscow Society of Naturalists 69 (6): 47–62.

Zhelezko V.I. 2000. The evolution of teeth system of sharks of Pseudoisurus Glückman, 1957 genus – the biggest pelagic sharks of Eurasia. In: Čuvasov B.I. (ed.) Materialy po stratigrafii i paleontologii Urala 4: 136–141. [In Russian.]

Zhelezko V.I. & Kozlov V.A. 1999. [Elasmobranchii and Palaeogene biostratigraphy of Transural and Central Asia]. Materialy po stratigrafii i paleontologii Urala 3: 1–324. [In Russian.]


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/