A mountain of millipedes VIII. The genus Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013 revisited – a new species from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania, another from the Nguru Mts and introduction of the first pair of male legs as a source of taxonomic characters (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae)

Henrik Enghoff


A large, newly collected material of the genus Aquattuor from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania, has been studied. Two new species are described, viz., A. mollilobus sp. nov. from the Udzungwa Mts and A. nguruensis sp. nov. from the Nguru Mts, Tanzania. Aquattuor claudiahempae Enghoff & Frederiksen, 2015, is recorded as new for the Udzungwa fauna. Characters from the first pair of male legs are illustrated for all Aquattuor species and are shown to be useful for species discrimination. A new gonopodal difference between A. submajor Enghoff, 2015 and A. udzungwensis Enghoff, 2015 is described and illustrated. Intrageneric relationships and distribution patterns are discussed. A distribution map and a key to all Aquattuor species are presented.


Eastern Arc; taxonomy; new species; identification key

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.626


Attems C.G. 1896. Beschreibung der von Dr. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelten Myriopoden. Jahrbuch der hamburgischen wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 13, Suppl.: 23–42. Available from: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28745426 [accessed 1 Oct. 2019].

Attems C. 1909. Myriopoda. In: Sjöstedt Y. (ed.) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, unter Leitung von Prof. Dr. Yngve Sjöstedt 3 (19): 1–64. Available from: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/1410223 [accessed 1 Oct. 2019].

Attems C.G. 1914. Afrikanisiche Spirostreptiden nebst Überblick über die Spirostreptiden orbis terrarum. Zoologica Stuttgart 65–66: 1–233.

Attems C. 1953. Neue Myriopoden des belgischen Congo. Annales du Musée royal du Congo Belge, Série 8o, Sciences Zoologiques 18: 1–139.

Brolemann H.W. 1920. Myriapodes. In: Allaud Ch. (ed.) Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale 1911–1912. Résultats Scientifiques, Myriapoda 3: 49–298. A. Schultz, Paris.

Enghoff H. 2014. A mountain of millipedes I: An endemic species-group of the genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 100: 1–75. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.100

Enghoff H. 2016a. A mountain of millipedes III: A new genus for three new species from the Udzungwa Mountains and surroundings, Tanzania, as well as several ‘orphaned’ species previously assigned to Odontopyge Brandt, 1841 (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 177: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.177

Enghoff H. 2016b. A mountain of millipedes IV: Species of Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. With notes on “P.” fasciatum (Attems, 1896) and a revised species key (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 215: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.215

Enghoff H. 2016c. A mountain of millipedes V: Three new genera of Odontopygidae from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 221: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.221

Enghoff H. 2018a. A mountain of millipedes VI. New records, new species, a new genus, and a general discussion of Odontopygidae from the Udzungwa Mts, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 394: 1–29. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.394

Enghoff H. 2018b. A mountain of millipedes VII. The genus Eviulisoma Silvestri, 1910, in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, and related species from other Eastern Arc mountains. With notes on Eoseviulisoma Brolemann, 1920, and Suohelisoma Hoffman, 1963 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 445: 1–90. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.445

Enghoff H. & Frederiksen S.B. 2015. A mountain of millipedes II: The genus Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013 – five new species from the Udzungwa Mountains and one from Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 150: 1–25. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2015.150

Enghoff H., Dohle W. & Blower J.G. 1993. Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda) – the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 109: 103–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1993.tb00305.x

Enghoff H., Hoffman R.L. & Howell K.M. 2016. Checklist of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Tanzania. Journal of East African Natural History 105 (1): 51–113. https://doi.org/10.2982/028.105.0103

Frederiksen S.B. 2013. East African odontopygid millipedes 3: Two new genera, Lamelloramus and Aquattuor proposed to contain three new species (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae). Zootaxa 3694: 59–66. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3694.1.4

Haacker U. 1969. An attractive secretion in the mating behaviour of a millipede. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 26: 988–990. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1969.tb01986.x

Hoffman R.L. & Howell K.M. 1981. A new genus, composed of brightly colored East African species, in the diplopod family Odontopygidae. Revue de Zoologie africaine 95 (3): 687–696.

Krabbe E. 1979. The first pair of legs in male Spirostreptidae: their function and taxonomic importance. In: Camatini M. (ed.) Myriapod Biology: 59–72. Academic Press. London.

Krabbe E. 1982. Systematik der Spirostreptidae (Diplopoda, Spirostreptomorpha). Abhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg (NF) 24: 1–476.

Kraus O. 1960. Äthiopische Diplopoden I. Monographie der Odontopygidae-Odontopyginae (Diplopoda, Spirostreptoidea). Annalen van het Koninklijk Museum van Belgisch-Congo 82: 1–207.

Marshall A.R., Jørgensbye H.I.O., Rovero F., Platts P.L., White P.C.L. & Lovett J.C. 2010. The species-area relationship and confounding variables in a threatened monkey community. American Journal of Primatology 72: 325–336. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20787

Mauriès J.-P. 1997. Is the family Atopogestidae based on a case of teratology or a periodomorphic stage? (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida: Odontopygoidea). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 51: 139–147.

Schubart O. 1934. Tausendfüssler oder Myriapoda I: Diplopoda. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 28: i–vii + 1–318.

Schubart O. 1966. Diplopoda III. Pselaphognatha, Opisthospermophora, Colobognatha. South African Animal Life 12: 9–227.

VandenSpiegel D. & Pierrard G. 2009. Révision du genre Prionopetalum (Odontopygidae, Diplopoda) et descriptions de nouvelles espèces d’Afrique de l’Est. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 5: 149–163.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/